Migration, Environment and Climate Change: Policy Brief Series
Mongolias harsh climate and the dependence of the nations rural population on animal husbandry make it vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Mongolia is already experiencing dramatic rural-to-urban migration as a result of multiple factors, including declining livelihood opportunities in rural areas, a phenomenon exacerbated by environmental changes and natural disasters such as drought and dzud.
Ongoing climate change is expected to present a growing challenge to the traditional pastoral way of life of many in Mongolia and likely to continue to impact human mobility.
The distinction between “forced” and “voluntary” migration is often unclear, and decision-making on the subject is complex. This is particularly so when population movements are associated with slow-onset disasters or gradual environmental change, and when populations lead traditionally nomadic, pastoral ways of life.