Afforestation and hillside terracing
Tree plantations using fast-growing and native species are established in combination with hillside terracing to protect upper catchment areas. The afforested areas are closed for any use until the trees reach maturity, after which user rights were given to communities allowing cut-and-carry of grass and cutting of trees with government permission.
The technology requires appreciable expense, labour and expertise, but if maintained well, it results in multiple ecological and economic benefits: soil cover has improved, water is conserved, the severe problems of soil erosion have been reduced, and dams further downstream are protected from siltation. Trees have become an important source of income for the rural communities, wood is a valuable resource mainly needed for construction, and also as fuel.