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Fact of the Month - Word of the Week

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LAND is our wealth and our future. A better future is possible if we care, protect, recover, restore and invest in LAND. The ground beneath our feet is more precious than we know. Land is the foundation for all life on Earth.

How land is used and managed influences nature, food, water, energy, climate, and even our health. Today, the pressures on land and the wealth of resources it provides are greater than at any other time in human history.

Don't forget the ground on which we walk and the LAND that feeds us. This LAND is our LAND.

📚 Fact of the Month-November 2021- Low-carbon economies could create over 200 million new net jobs in the next decade in 24 major emerging economies

How countries manage the transition is critical. While the transition will create millions of new jobs in the clean energy sector, many of the coal workers and communities most impacted will struggle to access them. Moreover, cultural, psychological, and other social impacts may have long-lasting effects, particularly in coal regions that already experience extreme inequality and high rates of poverty.

Pursuing a Just Transition for All will require a whole of society approach that considers a broad range of stakeholders, including governments, the private sector, communities, academia, and civil society. An integrated approach will help mitigate the impact on people and communities affected by coal transition and create economic opportunities in more sustainable sectors, both locally and beyond. Critical measures include social protection policies to minimize the disruption to families and help workers transition into new jobs, and government investment in the green transition – including in education and training, infrastructure, job search and other labor programs, and in community-level interventions. (Source)

Related:

📚 Word of the Week - Methane emissions

Methane emissions are the second largest contributor to global warming. The gas has a global warming potential over 80 times that of carbon dioxide over a 20-year horizon.

  • It contributes 31% of the net warming impact of all well-mixed green-house gas emissions.
  • Anthropogenic methane emissions account for 60% of total methane emissions.
  • However, methane has a shorter lifetime in the atmosphere than carbon dioxide: only twelve years, compared to up to hundreds.
  • This means that cutting methane emissions can lower temperatures quickly.

New and updated climate commitments fall far short of what is needed to meet the goals of the Paris Agreement, leaving the world on track for a global temperature rise of at least 2.7°C this century, according to the UN Environment Programme’s (UNEP) latest Emissions Gap Report 2021: The Heat Is On launched 26 October .

The report, now in its 12th year, finds that countries’ updated Nationally Determined Contributions(NDCs) – and other commitments made for 2030 but not yet submitted in an updated NDC – only take an additional 7.5 per cent off predicted annual greenhouse gas emissions in 2030, compared to the previous round of commitments.

Reductions of 30 per cent are needed to stay on the least-cost pathway for 2°C and 55 per cent for 1.5°C.

Updated climate commitments ahead of COP26 summit fall far short, but net-zero pledges provide hope

• Latest UNEP Emissions Gap Report finds new and updated Nationally Determined Contributions only take 7.5% off predicted 2030 emissions, while 55% is needed to meet the 1.5°C Paris goal
• Latest climate promises for 2030 put the world on track for a temperature rise this century of at least 2.7°C
• Net-zero commitments could shave off another 0.5°C, if these pledges were made robust and if 2030 promises were made consistent with the net-zero commitments

Released ahead of the UN Climate Change Conference (COP26), the latest round of climate talks taking place in Glasgow, the report finds that net-zero pledges could make a big difference.

If fully implemented, these pledges could bring the predicted global temperature rise to 2.2°C, providing hope that further action could still head off the most-catastrophic impacts of climate change. However, netzero pledges are still vague, incomplete in many cases, and inconsistent with most 2030 NDCs.

“Climate change is no longer a future problem. It is a now problem,” said Inger Andersen, Executive Director of UNEP. “To stand a chance of limiting global warming to 1.5°C, we have eight years to almost halve greenhouse gas emissions: eight years to make the plans, put in place the policies, implement them and ultimately deliver the cuts. The clock is ticking loudly.”

As of 30 September 2021, 120 countries, representing just over half of global greenhouse gas emissions, had communicated new or updated NDCs. In addition, three G20 members have announced other new mitigation pledges for 2030.

To have any chance of limiting global warming to 1.5°C, the world has eight years to take an additional 28 gigatonnes of CO2 equivalent (GtCO2e) off annual emissions, over and above what is promised in the updated NDCs and other 2030 commitments. To put this number into perspective, carbon dioxide emissions alone are expected to reach 33 gigatonnes in 2021. (Source)

📚 Word of the Week - Plastic pollution

Plastic pollution on course to double by 2030 .Plastic pollution in oceans and other bodies of water continues to grow sharply and could more than double by 2030, according to an assessment released on Thursday by the UN Environment Programme .

The report highlights dire consequences for health, the economy, biodiversity and the climate. It also says a drastic reduction in unnecessary, avoidable and problematic plastic, is crucial to addressing the global pollution crisis overall.  

To help reduce plastic waste at the needed scale, it proposes an accelerated transition from fossil fuels to renewable energies, the removal of subsidies and a shift towards more circular approaches towards reduction. 

Titled From Pollution to Solution: a global assessment of marine litter and plastic pollution, the report shows that there is a growing threat, across all ecosystems, from source to sea. 

For example, in 2015, greenhouse gas emissions from plastics were 1.7 gigatonnes of CO2 equivalent; by 2050, they’re projected to increase to approximately 6.5 gigatonnes. That number represents 15 per cent of the whole global carbon budget - the​​ amount of greenhouse gas that can be emitted, while still keeping warming within the Paris Agreement goals. 

The report looks at critical market failures, such as the low price of virgin fossil fuel feedstocks (any renewable biological material that can be used directly as a fuel) compared to recycled materials, disjointed efforts in informal and formal plastic waste management, and the lack of consensus on global solutions. 

Instead, the assessment calls for the immediate reduction in plastic production and consumption, and encourages a transformation across the whole value chain. 

It also asks for investments in far more robust and effective monitoring systems to identify the sources, scale and fate of plastic. Ultimately, a shift to circular approaches and more alternatives are necessary.  

Currently, plastic accounts for 85 per cent of all marine litter. 

By 2040, it will nearly triple, adding 23-37 million metric tons of waste into the ocean per year. This means about 50kg of plastic per meter of coastline. 

Because of this, all marine life, from plankton and shellfish; to birds, turtles and mammals; faces the grave risk of toxification, behavioral disorder, starvation and suffocation. 

The human body is similarly vulnerable. Plastics are ingested through seafood, drinks and even common salt. They also penetrate the skin and are inhaled when suspended in the air. 

In water sources, this type of pollution can cause hormonal changes, developmental disorders, reproductive abnormalities and even cancer. 

According to the report, there are also significant consequences for the global economy. 

Globally, when accounting for impacts on tourism, fisheries and aquaculture, together with the price of projects such as clean-ups, the costs were estimated to be six to 19 billion dollars per year, during 2018. 

By 2040, there could be a $100 billion annual financial risk for businesses if governments require them to cover waste management costs. It can also lead to a rise in illegal domestic and international waste disposal. 

(UNEP) ( Source)

📚 Word of the Week - Clean energy

The International Energy Agency (IEA) published its annual flagship report, ‘World Energy Outlook 2021’ (WEO-2021), which highlights opportunities, benefits, and risks of clean energy transitions. The publication aims to serve as an “essential guidebook” for the Glasgow Climate Change Conference (COP 26) and beyond to accelerate the transition towards a 1.5°C pathway. The report identifies four key solutions to close the gap with a 1.5°C path, noting that more than 40% of the actions needed are cost-effective:

  • A “massive” additional push for clean electrification that requires, inter alia:
  • a doubling of solar PV and wind deployment relative to the APS;
  • a major expansion of other low-emission generation, including nuclear where acceptable;
  • a rapid phase-out of coal; and a drive to expand electricity use for transport and heating;
  • A “relentless” focus on energy efficiency, together with measures to temper energy service demand through materials efficiency and behavioral change, resulting in significant cost savings to consumers;
  • A broad drive to cut methane emissions from fossil fuel operations; and 
  • A big boost to clean energy innovation.

The report further identifies finance as the “missing link” to accelerate clean energy deployment in developing countries. It indicates that nearly USD 4 trillion by 2030 is needed in clean energy project and infrastructure investments to get the world on track for 1.5°C, and calls for accelerating capital flows in support of energy transitions in developing economies.

The report warns that the “costs of inaction on climate are immense, and the energy sector is at risk,” and calls for “unambiguous direction” from COP 26 to make the 2020s the “decade of massive clean energy deployment.

The World Energy Outlook 2021 points out that “today’s pledges cover less than 20% of the gap in emissions reductions that needs to be closed by 2030 to keep a 1.5°C path within reach.” (Source)  

📚 Word of the Week - Global warming / Greenhouse effect

Today, the energy sector produces about three-quarters of all greenhouse gas emissions, largely because of coal, the world's most dominant and carbon-intensive source of energy.

Global warming isn't a recent scientific concept. The basics of the phenomenon were worked out well over a century ago by Swedish physicist and chemist Svante Arrhenius, in 1896. His paper, published in the Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, was the first to quantify the contribution of carbon dioxide to what scientists now call the "greenhouse effect."

The greenhouse effect occurs because the sun bombards Earth with enormous amounts of radiation that strike Earth's atmosphere in the form of visible light, plus ultraviolet (UV), infrared (IR) and other types of radiation that are invisible to the human eye. UV radiation has a shorter wavelength and a higher energy level than visible light, while IR radiation has a longer wavelength and a weaker energy level. About 30% of the radiation that strikes Earth is reflected back out to space by clouds, ice and other reflective surfaces. The remaining 70% is absorbed by the oceans, the land and the atmosphere, according to NASA's Earth Observatory.

As they heat up, the oceans, land and atmosphere release heat in the form of IR thermal radiation, which passes out of the atmosphere and into space. It's this equilibrium of incoming and outgoing radiation that makes the Earth habitable, with an average temperature of about 59 degrees Fahrenheit (15 degrees Celsius), according to NASA. Without this atmospheric equilibrium, Earth would be as cold and lifeless as its moon, or as blazing hot as Venus. The moon, which has almost no atmosphere, is about minus 243 F (minus 153 C) on its dark side. Venus, on the other hand, has a very dense atmosphere that traps solar radiation; the average temperature on Venus is about 864 F (462 C).

The exchange of incoming and outgoing radiation that warms the Earth is often referred to as the greenhouse effect because an agricultural greenhouse works in much the same way. 

The gases in the atmosphere that absorb radiation are known as "greenhouse gases" (abbreviated as GHG) because they are largely responsible for the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect, in turn, is one of the leading causes of global warming. The most significant greenhouse gases, according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), are: water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). 

"While oxygen (O2) is the second most abundant gas in our atmosphere, O2 does not absorb thermal infrared radiation," Michael Daley, an associate professor of environmental science at Lasell College in Massachusetts, told Live Science. (Source).

But the energy used to power people's lives and boost economic activity is also the greatest driver of climate change. Today, the energy sector produces about three-quarters of all greenhouse gas emissions, largely because of coal, the world's most dominant and carbon-intensive source of energy.

📚 Fact of the Month - October  2021 - Lack of Water Linked to 10 Percent of the Rise in Global Migration

Lack of Water Linked to 10 Percent of the Rise in Global Migration

In the Middle East and North Africa, the region with the highest levels of forced displacement, water resilience is key to long-term growth. 

As climate change accelerates a global water crisis, rainfall variability is expected to be one of the contributing forces in migration, according to a new World Bank report released today. The report anticipates that the world’s cities, which receive migrants and are now home to 55% of the global population, will face a rising number of “day-zero” events – when taps run dry.

The report, Ebb and Flow, provides the first-ever global assessment of the impact of water on migration. It is based on analysis of the largest data set on internal migration ever assembled, covering nearly half a billion people from 189 population censuses in 64 countries, and several national and global data sets that have been combined for the first time. In the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), where 60 percent of the population lives in water-stressed areas, the report notes that water is already one of the main vulnerabilities faced by people living in the region, particularly those displaced by conflicts and their host communities.

  • The report finds that water deficits are linked to 10 percent of the increase in total migration within countries between 1970 and 2000.
  • By the end of this century, worsening droughts are projected to affect about 700 million people.

These climate shocks will have a disproportionate impact on the developing world, with more than 85 percent of people affected living in low- or middle-income countries. Yet it is often the poor who cannot afford to leave. The report finds that residents of poor countries are four times less likely to move than residents of wealthier countries.

Globally, water shocks affect not only the number of people who move, but also the skills they bring with them. Migrants who leave regions with lower rainfall and frequent drought usually possess lower educational levels and skills than other migrant workers, implying significantly lower wages and less access to basic services at their destination. This raises important policy implications for receiving cities.

Policies and infrastructure needed to build water resilience are expensive, but a drought is far more costly, potentially reducing a city’s economic growth by up to 12 percent.

The report highlights ways cities can tackle these challenges, such as reducing water demand, recycling wastewater, harvesting storm water, and redesigning urban areas to resemble sponges that soak up water and store it below ground.

Water security is key to post-conflict reconstruction in MENA

In the MENA region, war, conflict, and unemployment are more influential drivers of migration than events related to water, such as drought. As the effects of climate change intensify, however, these historical patterns may no longer hold. In areas that lack good governance, climate change could exacerbate vulnerabilities and create tensions over water resources, leading to a vicious cycle of water insecurity and fragility.

Water insecurity is felt most acutely by the millions of forcibly displaced and their host communities. The MENA region has the world’s highest levels of forced displacement, with an estimated 7.6 million refugees, of whom 2.7 million are hosted in the region, and 12.4 million internally displaced people fleeing protracted conflicts.

Water is more often a victim – rather than a primary source – of conflict. Using data from Duke University’s Targeting of Infrastructure in the Middle East (TIME) database, the report finds that, since 2011, there have been at least 180 instances in which water infrastructure was targeted in conflicts in Gaza, Yemen, Syria, and Libya, leaving hundreds of thousands without access to water.

According to the report findings, steps to build water security are urgently needed within the MENA region. Source

Further reading from UNCCD Library on 📚   migration; 📚   water management ; 📚   water harvesting 

📚 Word of the Week - Water Scarcity
Scaling up water reuse: Why recycling our wastewater makes sense

As much as 36 percent of the global population lives in water-scarce areas, and water demand is expected to rise to 55 percent by 2050 amid rapid urbanization. Wastewater reuse — recycling and reusing water from our sewerage systems — may prompt what is quite simply known as the “yuck” factor but may also present an elegant solution to many of these water challenges.” 

Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) is vital to achieving long-term social, economic and environmental well-being. But, despite some advances, 107 countries remain off track to hit the goal of sustainably managing their water resources by 2030.

Overall, the world is seriously behind schedule on the UN Sustainable Development Goal No. 6 (SDG 6) to ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all. In 2020, 3.6 billion people lacked safely managed sanitation services, 2.3 billion lacked basic hygiene services and more than 2 billion live in water-stressed countries with lack of access to safe drinking water.  

75 countries reported water efficiency levels below average, including 10 with extremely low levels. The current rates of progress need to quadruple in order to reach the global targets by 2030.

The good news is that nations are determined to improve the situation. According to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), water and food are the two top priority issues of the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) to the Paris Agreement, with countries highlighting the need for strengthening climate services for water.

Further reading from UNCCD library on 📚   water stress ; 📚   water footprint ;📚   water management

📚 Word of the Week - Water Stress

More than two billion people are living in countries under water stress and 3.6 billion people face inadequate access to water at least one month per year. Meanwhile, water-related hazards have increased in frequency for the past 20 years.

  • Since 2000, flood-related disasters have increased by 134%, and frequency of droughts increased by 29%.

Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) is vital to achieving long-term social, economic and environmental well-being. But, although most countries have advanced their level of IWRM implementation, 107 countries remain off track to hit the goal of sustainably managing their water resources by 2030 (UN SDG 6).

The latest report on the State of Climate Services, for water, explores the progress made by WMO Members in using climate services to address water-related challenges. The report highlights the gaps in user engagement, forecasting, observing networks, and data collection that still exist. The 90-minute launch program, curated by WMO, will feature interventions by some of the report’s contributing organizations. An audience of hundreds of participants, representing a wide range of stakeholders engaged in implementing or supporting the application of climate services for effective adaptation in the water sector, is expected. (Source)

Going with the flow: Water’s role in global migration There are more than 1 billion migrants in the world today – and water deficits are linked to 10% of the rise in global migration. Ebb and Flow, the World Bank’s newly released flagship publication on water, shows that it is a lack of water, rather than too much, that has a greater impact on migration.

Going With The Flow: Water’s Role in Global Migration

Ebb and Flow: Water, Migration, and Development

Further reading from UNCCD library on 📚   water stress ; 📚   water footprint ; 📚   water scarcity

📚 Word of the Week - Water Management

Water-related hazards like floods and droughts are increasing because of climate change. The number of people suffering water stress is expected to soar, exacerbated by population increase and dwindling availability. But management, monitoring, forecasting and early warnings are fragmented and inadequate, whilst global climate finance efforts are insufficient according to a new multi-agency report.

The State of Climate Services 2021: Water highlights the need for urgent action to improve cooperative water management, embrace integrated water and climate policies and scale up investment in this precious commodity which underpins all the international goals on sustainable development, climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction.

“Increasing temperatures are resulting in global and regional precipitation changes, leading to shifts in rainfall patterns and agricultural seasons, with a major impact on food security and human health and well-being,” says World Meteorological Organization Secretary-General Prof. Petteri Taalas.

“This past year has seen a continuation of extreme, water-related events. Across Asia, extreme rainfall caused massive flooding in Japan, China, Indonesia, Nepal, Pakistan and India. Millions of people were displaced, and hundreds were killed. But it is not just in the developing world that flooding has led to major disruption. Catastrophic flooding in Europe led to hundreds of deaths and widespread damage,” he said.

“Lack of water continues to be a major cause of concern for many nations, especially in Africa. More than two billion people live in water-stressed countries and suffer lack of access to safe drinking water and sanitation,” he told the official high-level launch event.

“We need to wake up to the looming water crisis,” said Prof. Taalas.

The report was coordinated by WMO and contains input from more than 20 international organizations, development agencies and scientific institutions. It is accompanied by a Story Map

Further reading from UNCCD library on 📚   water footprint ; 📚   water scarcity

📚 Word of the Week - Water Hazards

According to figures cited in the report, The State of Climate Services 2021: Water 

  • 3.6 billion people had inadequate access to water at least one month per year in 2018.
  • By 2050, this is expected to rise to more than five billion.

In the past 20 years, terrestrial water storage – the summation of all water on the land surface and in the subsurface, including soil moisture, snow and ice – has dropped at a rate of 1cm per year.

The biggest losses are occurring in Antarctica and Greenland, but many highly populated lower latitude locations are experiencing significant water losses in areas that are traditionally providing water supply, with major ramifications for water security.

The situation is worsening by the fact that only 0.5% of water on Earth is useable and available freshwater.

  • Water-related hazards have increased in frequency over the past 20 years. Since 2000, flood-related disasters have risen by 134% compared with the two previous decades. Most of the flood-related deaths and economic losses were recorded in Asia, where end-to-end warning systems for riverine floods require strengthening.
  • The number and duration of droughts also increased by 29% over this same period. Most drought-related deaths occurred in Africa, indicating a need for stronger end-to-end warning systems for drought in that region.

Recommendations

  • The report makes strategic recommendations for policy makers to improve the implementation and effectiveness of climate services for water worldwide:
  • Invest in Integrated Resources Water Management as a solution to better manage water stress, especially in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and Least Developed Countries (LDCs);    
  • Invest in end-to-end drought and flood early warning systems in at-risk LDCs, including for drought warning in Africa and flood warning in Asia;
  • Fill the capacity gap in collecting data for basic hydrological variables which underpin climate services and early warning systems;
  • Improve the interaction among national level stakeholders to co-develop and operationalize climate services with information users to better support adaptation in the water sector.
  • There is also a pressing need for better monitoring and evaluation of socio-economic benefits, which will help to showcase best practices;
  • Fill the data gaps for climate services in the water sector. Members’ data on climate services for water is missing from 65 WMO Members and particularly from SIDS.
  • Just 19% of SIDS provided data for this report which is insufficient to assess the state of SIDS capacities and climate services needs for water.
  • Join the Water and Climate Coalition. This is organized by WMO in response to the need for integrated policy developments and improved practical solutions. The coalition provides countries with support to improve assessment of water resources as well as forecasting and outlook services for water.

Further reading from UNCCD library on  📚   water scarcity ; 📚   water management

📚 Fact of the Month - September 2021- Adopting a planet-based diet can reduce agricultural land-use by at least 41% 

The food system must nourish people without damaging our planet – but right now it’s failing on both fronts. Nearly 700 million are hungry, nearly 2 billion are obese or overweight and we’re losing nature at a catastrophic rate.

Planet-based diets will ensure everyone on the planet has healthy and nutritious food and will help bend the curve on the negative impacts of the food system, moving from one which exploits the planet to one which restores it for nature and people.

Adopting a planet-based diet can reduce 

  • Agricultural land-use by at least 41% ;
  • Food-based greenhouse gas emissions by at least 30%; 
  • Wildlife loss by up to 46% ; 
  • Premature deaths by at least 20%

Planet-Based diets are “win-win” consumption patterns that are high on human health benefits and low on environmental impacts. There’s no one-size fits all solution, but there are common themes.

Although our current food systems are producing enough to feed the planet, around half of it comes at the expense of the planet. We are beginning to feel the consequences of our actions, and see the warning signs of a planet in crisis. We need to transform our food systems to bend the curve on nature impacts and reverse the course, so that what we eat nurtures not destroys the planet. Source

📚 Word of the Week - Consumption

Every year, 70 million trees in endangered and ancient forests are cut down and replaced by plantations of trees used to make wood-based fabrics, such as rayon, viscose, and modal (Sustain Your Style, 2020).

Should the global population reach 9.6 billion by 2050, the equivalent of almost three planets would be required to provide the natural resources needed to sustain current lifestyles (UNEP, 2020)

A family in the Global North throws away an average of 30 kg of clothing each year. Only 15% is recycled or donated, and the rest goes directly to the landfill or is incinerated. Source 

The Sustainable Development Goals Report 2020 warned the global material footprint is increasing faster than population growth and economic output. It also notes how improvements in resource efficiency in some countries are offset by increases in intensity in others.

Fossil fuel subsidies are also cited as a serious concern, as is the high proportion of food waste lost in long supply chains. Source 

Despite decades of multilateral commitments, the world’s reliance on natural resources has accelerated.

The SDG Report observes the material footprint (primary materials required to meet basic needs for food, clothing, water, shelter, infrastructure and other aspects of life) grew from 73.2 billion metric tons in 2010 to 85.9 billion metric tons in 2017, a 17.4% increase in just seven years.

In addition, while 79 countries and the European Union reported on at least one national policy instrument contributing to the implementation of the 10YFP between 2017 and 2019, only 10% of all policies reported in 2019 related to economic and financial instruments, reflecting a limited operationalization of the 10YFP vision. Source 

📚 Word of the Week - Food Loss and Food Waste

Every year, about one third of all food produced—about 1.3 billion tonnes—is wasted while 1 billion people remain undernourished and another 1 billion go to bed hungry.

Households consume 29% of global energy contributing to 21% of carbon dioxide emissions (UNEP, 2020), pointing to the significant linkage between sustainable consumption and production (SCP) and the climate change challenge of ensuring access to renewable energy and the regulation of building standards to reflect best practice in green architecture. Source 

Food loss is the decrease in the quantity or quality of food resulting from decisions and actions by food suppliers in the chain, excluding retailers, food service providers and consumers (SOFA, 2019) Food waste refers to the decrease in the quantity or quality of food resulting from decisions and actions by retailers, food service providers and consumers (SOFA, 2019). 

Why is it important to reduce food loss and waste?

Globally, around 14 per cent of food produced is lost between harvest and retail, while an estimated 17 per cent of total global food production is wasted (11 per cent in households, 5 per cent in the food service and 2 per cent in retail).

Food loss and waste undermine the sustainability of our food systems. When food is lost or wasted, all the resources that were used to produce this food -, including water, land, energy, labour and capital - go to waste. In addition, the disposal of food loss and waste in landfills, leads to greenhouse gas emissions, contributing to climate change. Food loss and waste can also negatively impact food security and food availability, and contribute to increasing the cost of food.

Our food systems cannot be resilient if they are not sustainable. With nine years left to reach SDG goal 12, target 12.3; there is an urgent need to accelerate action to reduce food loss and waste. 

Key messages

There is never room for food loss and waste!   Reducing food loss and waste, provides a powerful means to strengthen the sustainability of our food systems, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve planetary health. 

 

  • Recovery and redistribution make good use of surplus food and contribute to improving access to food for the food insecure, preventing food waste and ensuring economic, environmental and social benefits.  
  • Household food waste is a global challenge – occurring at comparable per person levels regardless of region or country income levels. Behavioural insights can help reduce waste at consumer level.
  • Measuring food loss and waste helps countries and companies to understand the scale of the problem, target hotspots, and track progress on Sustainable Development Goal 12.3, halving food waste and reducing food loss across supply chains by 2030. 
  • For additional information on IDAFLW, visit the FAO website: http://www.fao.org/international-day-awareness-food-loss-waste/en
  • Stop the waste of food. On 29 September 2020, we celebrate the first observance of the International Day of Awareness of Food Loss and Waste. It also comes during the global COVID-19 pandemic, that has brought about a wake-up call on the need to transform and rebalance the way our food is produced and consumed. Wasting less, eating better and adopting a sustainable lifestyle are key to building a world free of hunger. Little changes to our daily habits can make a huge global impact. Take action. Stop food loss and waste. For the people and for the planet. (Source). Globally, around 14 percent of food produced is lost between harvest and retail. Significant quantities are also wasted in retail and at the consumption level. When food is loss or wasted, all the resources that were used to produce this food including water, land, energy, labour and capital – go to waste. In addition, the disposal of food loss and waste in landfills, leads to greenhouse gas emissions, contributing to climate change.  Publications, articles and more about food loss and food wasteland footprintconsumption from UNCCD Library 15 quick tips for reducing food waste and becoming a Food hero Three smart ways innovation is helping reduce food loss and waste. One thing is clear: in this time of crisis, there is no room for food loss and waste! (Source)  
📚 Word of the Week - Health and Diet

A healthy diet is essential for good health and nutrition. It protects you against many chronic noncommunicable diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes and cancer. Eating a variety of foods and consuming less salt, sugars and saturated and industrially-produced trans-fats, are essential for healthy diet.

Key facts from WHO

  • A healthy diet helps to protect against malnutrition in all its forms, as well as noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), including such as diabetes, heart disease, stroke and cancer.
  • Unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity are leading global risks to health.
  • Healthy dietary practices start early in life – breastfeeding fosters healthy growth and improves cognitive development, and may have longer term health benefits such as reducing the risk of becoming overweight or obese and developing NCDs later in life.
  • Energy intake (calories) should be in balance with energy expenditure. To avoid unhealthy weight gain, total fat should not exceed 30% of total energy intake (1, 2, 3).
  • Intake of saturated fats should be less than 10% of total energy intake, and intake of trans-fats less than 1% of total energy intake, with a shift in fat consumption away from saturated fats and trans-fats to unsaturated fats (3), and towards the goal of eliminating industrially-produced trans-fats (4, 5, 6).
  • Limiting intake of free sugars to less than 10% of total energy intake (2, 7) is part of a healthy diet. A further reduction to less than 5% of total energy intake is suggested for additional health benefits (7).
  • Keeping salt intake to less than 5 g per day (equivalent to sodium intake of less than 2 g per day) helps to prevent hypertension, and reduces the risk of heart disease and stroke in the adult population (8).
  • WHO Member States have agreed to reduce the global population’s intake of salt by 30% by 2025; they have also agreed to halt the rise in diabetes and obesity in adults and adolescents as well as in childhood overweight by 2025 (9, 10).

For adults a healthy diet includes the following:

  • Fruit, vegetables, legumes (e.g. lentils and beans), nuts and whole grains (e.g. unprocessed maize, millet, oats, wheat and brown rice).
  • At least 400 g (i.e. five portions) of fruit and vegetables per day (2), excluding potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava and other starchy roots.
  • Less than 10% of total energy intake from free sugars (2, 7), which is equivalent to 50 g (or about 12 level teaspoons) for a person of healthy body weight consuming about 2000 calories per day, but ideally is less than 5% of total energy intake for additional health benefits (7).
  • Free sugars are all sugars added to foods or drinks by the manufacturer, cook or consumer, as well as sugars naturally present in honey, syrups, fruit juices and fruit juice concentrates.
  • Less than 30% of total energy intake from fats (1, 2, 3).
  • Unsaturated fats (found in fish, avocado and nuts, and in sunflower, soybean, canola and olive oils) are preferable to saturated fats (found in fatty meat, butter, palm and coconut oil, cream, cheese, ghee and lard) and trans-fats of all kinds, including both industrially-produced trans-fats (found in baked and fried foods, and pre-packaged snacks and foods, such as frozen pizza, pies, cookies, biscuits, wafers, and cooking oils and spreads) and ruminant trans-fats (found in meat and dairy foods from ruminant animals, such as cows, sheep, goats and camels).
  • It is suggested that the intake of saturated fats be reduced to less than 10% of total energy intake and trans-fats to less than 1% of total energy intake (5). In particular, industrially-produced trans-fats are not part of a healthy diet and should be avoided (4, 6).
  • Less than 5  g of salt (equivalent to about one teaspoon) per day (8).  Salt should be iodized.

For infants and young children

  • In the first 2 years of a child’s life, optimal nutrition fosters healthy growth and improves cognitive development. It also reduces the risk of becoming overweight or obese and developing NCDs later in life.
  • Advice on a healthy diet for infants and children is similar to that for adults, but the following elements are also important:
  • Infants should be breastfed exclusively during the first 6 months of life.
  • Infants should be breastfed continuously until 2 years of age and beyond.
  • From 6 months of age, breast milk should be complemented with a variety of adequate, safe and nutrient-dense foods. Salt and sugars should not be added to complementary foods.

Governments have a central role in creating a healthy food environment that enables people to adopt and maintain healthy dietary practices.  Read further from WHO

📚 Word of the Week - Indigenous Peoples

There are over 476 million indigenous peoples living in 90 countries across the world, accounting for 6.2 per cent of the global population. Indigenous peoples are the holders of a vast diversity of unique cultures, traditions, languages and knowledge systems. They have a special relationship with their lands and hold diverse concepts of development based on their own worldviews and priorities.

Although numerous indigenous peoples worldwide are self-governing and some have been successful in establishing autonomy in varying forms, many indigenous peoples still come under the ultimate authority of central governments who exercise control over their lands, territories and resources. Despite that reality, indigenous peoples have demonstrated extraordinary examples of good governance, ranging from the Haudenosaunee to the existing Sámi parliaments in Finland, Sweden, and Norway.

The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed and exacerbated many existing inequalities, disproportionately affecting populations all over the world that were already suffering from poverty, illness, discrimination, institutional instability or financial insecurity. From the perspective of indigenous peoples, the contrast is even starker. In many of our societies, the social contract, at the very least, needs some revision.

What is a social contract?

This August 9, International Day of Indigenous Peoples, we must demand indigenous peoples’ inclusion, participation and approval in the constitution of a system with social and economic benefits for all.

That is why the 2021 theme is ““Leaving no one behind: Indigenous peoples and the call for a new social contract.” But, what does it mean?

A social contract is an unwritten agreement that societies make to cooperate for social and economic benefits. In many countries, where indigenous peoples were driven from their lands, their cultures and languages denigrated and their people marginalized from political and economic activities, they were never included in the social contract to begin with. The social contract was made among the dominant populations.

Over recent years and decades, various societies have sought to address this, including through apologies, truth and reconciliation efforts, legislative reforms, as well as constitutional reforms, while at the international level, these efforts have included the adoption of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and advisory bodies such as the Permanent Forum on Indigenous IssuesSource

Did you know:  

  • More than 86% of indigenous peoples globally work in the informal economy, compared to 66% for their non-indigenous counterparts
  • Indigenous peoples are nearly three times as likely to be living in extreme poverty compared to their non-indigenous counterparts.
  • Globally, 47% of all indigenous peoples in employment have no education, compared to 17% of their non-indigenous counterparts. This gap is even wider for women.

Upcoming Decade of Indigenous Languages (2022 – 2032) to focus on Indigenous language users’ human rights 

Current data indicates that at least 40% of the 7,000 languages used worldwide are at some level of endangerment.

While reliable figures are hard to come by, experts agree that indigenous languages are particularly vulnerable because many of them are not taught at school or used in the public sphere.

More statistical data will become available once UNESCO’s Atlas of Languages, a database about practically all human languages, becomes available later this year.

Further reading from UNCCD library on  📚 Indigenous people , more from FAO resources

📚 Fact of the Month - August 2021 - Hunger had been on the rise for several years, affecting up to 811 million people as of 2020, while healthy diets were unaffordable for at least 3 billion.

Hunger had been on the rise for several years, affecting up to 811 million people as of 2020, while healthy diets were unaffordable for at least 3 billion. Meanwhile, climate change was already affecting production, and the need to address concerns related to greenhouse gas emissions and environmental footprint was growing ever more urgent. And the role of food systems in the emergence of new infectious diseases – as a result of both the loss of biodiversity due to unsustainable practices and the damage to ecosystems that it caused – had already been acknowledged.

Now, because of the effects the pandemic has already had on our food systems – and because of the potential additional effects still to come – nearly one in three people in the world did not have access to adequate food in 2020 – an increase of almost 320 million people in just one year.

Furthermore, only 10 years remain until 2030 – the deadline for achieving the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) – and many of the goals remain far out of reach. In many cases, unsafe or unsustainable food systems are part of the problem. For this reason, we need a transformation of our food systems.

UN Food Systems Summit

In 2021, UN Secretary-General António Guterres will convene a Food Systems Summit as part of the Decade of Action to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030.

There are five “action tracks” intended to highlight essential pathways for the transformation of food systems to support the SDGs. ( Source)

What will it take to build sustainable, resilient food systems in African  countries?

This was among the questions considered at the 2021 United Nations Food Systems Pre-Summit in late July. The summit, the first of its kind in this century, aims to identify bold, innovative actions, with measurable outcomes. These actions are needed to achieve many of the Sustainable Development Goals in what the UN has dubbed the “Decade of Action”.

African ministers of agriculture met before the summit to discuss the continent’s common position. Among the issues they tabled was using agriculture to reduce poverty, particularly for women and youth. 

When agriculture grows, there are benefits across the board. Its extensive linkages with the off-farm stages of the agrifood system and non-farm sectors expand employment and livelihoods in the rest of the economy. High farm production growth in sub-Saharan Africa since 2000 has contributed to high overall economic growth and improvements in the welfare of most people in the region. But approximately 75% of Africa’s agricultural production growth resulted from area expansion and only 25% from yield improvements. This is not sustainable in the long run: 90% of Africa’s available arable land is located in eight countries.  Scarcity amidst abundance? Reassessing the potential for cropland expansion in Africa (Source; Source; )

Challenges and opportunities to transforming African food systems and ensuring that they are sustainable and resilient:

  1. Lack of timely and high-quality data to inform decision-making
  2. High degree of post-harvest losses, food waste, and high level of food imports
  3. Poor adoption and access to modern technologies and infrastructure which are key for raising agricultural productivity, market information, and proving access to markets etc.
  4. Limited technologies that well adapted to African environments and specifities
  5. Limited capacities to bridge science and policymaking as well capacities for analysis and implementation
  6. Limited investments in agriculture and the lack of innovative 
  7. Growing effects of climate change and environmental and land degradation
  8. Africa’s growing youth unemployment and need better match skills and jobs available.

(SourceFood Systems Summit Dialogues, Official Feedback Form , Dialogue title: Building Resilient and Sustainable Food Systems in Africa: Mobilizing African Voices and Building Momentum for the UN Food Systems Summit   

📚 Word of the Week - Food Systems

FOOD SYSTEM CONCEPT “A food system gathers all the elements (environment, people, inputs, processes, infrastructures, institutions, etc.) and activities that relate to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of food, and the outputs of these activities, including socio-economic and environmental outcomes.”
Definition by the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition (HLPE 2014). (Source)

Sustainable food systems are critical in delivering progress on all 17 Sustainable Development Goals. From ending pover ty and hunger to responding to climate change and sustaining our natural resources, food systems lie at the core of the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

The Food Systems Summit in 2021 underlines the growing urgency and need for new approaches and bold actions to shape healthier, more sustainable and equitable food systems. It also is an opportunity to bring all food systems’ stakeholders together – national and local governments, companies, citizens and partners – to build bridges between divergent interests and foster a shared understanding.

Food is central in all societies. It defines the way humans interact with each other, connects people with their environment and is the foundation of livelihoods for a large part of humanity. Increasingly our food systems, shaped by changing lifestyles, globalisation, income growth, natural evolutionary processes and policies, pose a threat to peoples’ health and the stability of our planet.

Food systems around the world are facing a “triple challenge” (Figure 2, see the source).

They have to ensure food and nutrition security for a growing global population,

  • provide livelihoods for people working in food supply chains, and
  • build environmental sustainability
  • while adapting to and helping to mitigate climate change (OECD, 2021).

In 2020, 16.7 million people were acutely food-insecure, and projections for 2021 indicate a further worsening of the food and nutrition situation. Food supply chains provide employment to 100 million people, generate more than a third of regional GDP. Households spend 55% of their income on food.

Food systems also need to adapt to climate change and ensure environmental sustainability. They are not only highly dependent on the environment, but also exert important pressures on it as they rapidly evolve (OECD, 2021). Different aspects of this triple challenge interact, sometimes creating opportunities for policy synergies, but also leading to difficult trade-offs. Resolving such trade-offs will require not only a better understanding of the three challenges, but also of the interconnections between them, as well as of the structures that determine how food is produced, transformed and delivered to consumers.

Six categories of drivers will shape the future of food systems:

  1. Demographic
  2. Economic
  3. Socio-cultural Policies,
  4. regulations & governance
  5. Innovation, technology & infrastructure
  6. Biophysical & environmental

These drivers are highly interrelated and interact with each other, deliberately or unintentionally, influencing food-related activities, actors and outcomes. Together they define the way food is produced, traded and consumed. A better understanding of these drivers and their interactions will be central to informing and designing food system policies and the future of food systems.

Environmental drivers refer to the natural resources available, pollution and climate. They shape food systems mainly on the production side because food production is highly reliant on the availability of natural resources (water, land, biodiversity etc.).

Natural resources refers, according to the UN, to all “natural assets (raw materials) occurring in nature that can be used for economic production or consumption.

  • These elements are soil, land, water, fish, biodiversity (plants, animals, microbes etc.), forest and minerals present in nature.

The UN definition distinguishes four categories: mineral and energy, soil, water and biological resources. Some are fossil-based and can be considered as a finite stock and non-renewable (for example, mining phosphate).

Some others are renewable, which means that these natural resources “after exploitation, can return to their previous stock levels by natural processes of growth or replenishment.” Source: Dury et al. (2019) 

The complexity of food systems calls for investments in innovative data, tools and monitoring capacities as well as inclusive and sustained dialogue. Policy choices will present synergies and trade-offs. Resolving these challenges will be based on technical options and constraints as well as value judgments and policy debates. Developing a shared understanding on facts and evidence among stakeholders is needed to promote transparency and accountability and help drive inclusive and agile policy processes. ( Source)

Further reading and resources on food systems from UNCCD Library

📚 Word of the Week - Organic Agriculture

There are many explanations and definitions for organic agriculture but all converge to state that it is a system that relies on ecosystem management rather than external agricultural inputs. It is a system that begins to consider potential environmental and social impacts by eliminating the use of synthetic inputs, such as synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, veterinary drugs, genetically modified seeds and breeds, preservatives, additives and irradiation. These are replaced with site-specific management practices that maintain and increase long-term soil fertility and prevent pest and diseases.

"Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system which promotes and enhances agro-ecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles, and soil biological activity. It emphasises the use of management practices in preference to the use of off-farm inputs, taking into account that regional conditions require locally adapted systems. This is accomplished by using, where possible, agronomic, biological, and mechanical methods, as opposed to using synthetic materials, to fulfil any specific function within the system." (FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission, 1999).

Organic agriculture systems and products are not always certified and are referred to as "non-certified organic agriculture or products". This excludes agriculture systems that do not use synthetic inputs by default (e.g. systems that lack soil building practices and degrade land).

Conventional intensive agriculture causes a range of environmental impacts and is partly responsible for a loss of biodiversity. Organic agriculture is a more environmentally sustainable and ecologically beneficial type of management. The aim is to close nutrient cycles as far as possible and to manage in harmony with nature.

Organic farming does not use any mineral fertilisers. A range of crop rotations with intercropping maintain and support soil organisms and soil fertility. Avoiding the use of synthetic chemical pesticides enhances biological diversity on agricultural land. A more species-appropriate animal husbandry serves animal welfare and ensures acceptance by the general public. Organic agriculture therefore has a pioneering role in sustainable land management.

📚 Word of the Week - Food Security and agricultural system challenges 

“Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life”. (World Food Summit, 1996)

“We believe in a world where healthy, sustainable and inclusive food systems, allow people and planet to thrive. It is a world without poverty or hunger, a world of inclusive growth, environmental sustainability, and social justice. It is a resilient world where no one is left behind.” Agnes Kalibata, Special Envoy for the 2021 Food Systems Summit

Despite its multifaceted nature, the debate surrounding food security over the last few decades has largely focused on production and on the challenges facing the agricultural system. Food security has also been directly associated with hunger, poverty and humanitarian aspects. Although agriculture and fisheries are fundamental and essential components of the food system, it is misguided to address the future of food security without looking at the system’s many other determinants. The time has come to overcome this conventional approach and to look systemically at food security and its complex nature (Source)

  • There is more than enough food in the world to feed our population of 7.8 billion people. 
  • But, today, more than 820 million people are hungry. 
  • And some 144 million children under the age of 5 are stunted – more than one in five children worldwide.

Our food systems are failing, and the Covid-19 pandemic is making things worse. 

Unless immediate action is taken, it is increasingly clear that there is an impending global food emergency that could have long term impacts on hundreds of millions of children and adults. 

This year, some 49 million extra people may fall into extreme poverty due to the COVID-19 crisis the Secretary-General stresses in his latest Policy Brief on Food Security. READ  it here

DID YOU KNOW:

The Committee on World Food Security (CFS) is the foremost inclusive international and intergovernmental platform for all stakeholders to work together to ensure food security and nutrition for all.Using a multi-stakeholder, inclusive approach, CFS develops and endorses policy recommendations and guidance on a wide range of food security and nutrition topics. 

These are developed starting from scientific and evidence-based reports produced by the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition (HLPE) and/or through work supported technically by The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), World Food Programme (WFP) and representatives of the CFS Advisory Group. CFS holds an annual Plenary session every October in FAO, Rome.

Responsible investment in agriculture and food systems is essential for enhancing food security and nutrition and supporting the progressive realization of the right to adequate food in the context of national food security. (Source)

This year, UN Secretary-General António Guterres will convene a Food Systems Summit to raise global awareness and land global commitments and actions that transform food systems to resolve not only hunger, but to reduce diet-related disease and heal the planet. The Secretary General is calling for collective action of all citizens to radically change the way we produce, process, and consume food.

The Pre-Summit of the UN Food Systems Summit took place 26-28 July and  has set the stage for the culminating global event in September by bringing together diverse actors from around the world to leverage the power of food systems to deliver progress on all 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Check out the UNCCD Action Guides prepared for the Food Systems summit here

Boosting Nature-Positive Food Production. A pathway for safeguarding human and planetary health. UNCCD Action Guide No.1

The way we use land and water resources to grow, harvest, and process food (collectively referred to as food production) is currently not sustainable and often harmful to human and planetary health. To feed the global population of 9.7 billion projected by 2050 and safeguard nature’s legacy for future generations, a rapid and systemic transition to nature-positive food production is essential. By protecting, managing, and restoring the key components and functions of nature, we can produce healthy and nutritious food in ways that benefit people and contribute to climate stability, without compromising livelihoods and economic security.

Restoring Soil Health For Nature-Positive Food Production. A pathway for safeguarding human and planetary health. UNCCD Action Guide No.2

Soil is often seen as little more than the shallow layer of dirt on the Earth’s surface. Its role in providing almost all our food calories, regulating water supplies, supporting biodiversity, and helping stabilize the global climate is widely overlooked and frequently undervalued. The current methods used to produce crops and livestock have contributed to a worldwide decline in soil health. However, agroecological approaches and regenerative practices recognize that healthy soils are the foundation of human development. Adopting a sustainable soil management approach will restore soil health and functions and help reduce the negative environmental footprint of current food production systems, while simultaneously improving livelihoods, delivering ecosystem services, and boosting food security.

Managing Drought and Water Scarcity for Nature-Positive Food Production. A pathway for safeguarding human and planetary health. UNCCD Action Guide No.3

More than a third of the world’s population live in water scarce regions. Rising global temperatures and greater rainfall variability are accelerating the frequency and intensity of drought and expanding the extent of area experiencing water scarcity. While agriculture is currently the largest user of freshwater globally, it also offers considerable opportunities to improve water use efficiencies, availability, and quality where it is needed most. Nature-positive food production practices can help protect, manage, and restore freshwater resources, offering a pathway to safeguard and sustainably use this precious resource to mitigate the impacts of drought and water scarcity

Food is a life force for our families, cultures, and our communities. But profound changes in the way food is grown, processed, distributed, consumed, and wasted over the last several decades has led to increasing threats to a future of food that is sustainable, equitable, and secure. Food interconnects with all aspects of our lives: Water • Land • Energy • Culture • Jobs • Technology • Economies • Policies • Families.

  • Based on research using a machine-learning tool to analyze over 500,000 published reports and articles and economic modelling, the research project finds that an additional USD 14 billion per year until 2030 is needed to achieve SDG 2.

The researchers propose ten interventions organized around three focus areas: On the farm, Food on the move, and Empower the excluded. (Source)

Publications, articles and more about 📚  food security   from UNCCD Library

📚 Word of the Week - Floods

When disaster strikes, it usually manifests itself through water. Floods, landslides, tsunamis, storms, heat waves, cold spells, droughts and waterborne disease outbreaks are all becoming more frequent and more intense.

The impacts and costs of these events are exacerbated by such factors as unplanned urbanization and degradation of ecosystem services. Reducing risk to, and improving the resilience of, water and sanitation services will be key to maintaining access during a climatically uncertain future.

Water-related disasters pose both direct impacts (e.g. damage to buildings, crops and infrastructure, and loss of life and property) and indirect impacts (e.g. losses in productivity and livelihoods, increased investment risk, indebtedness and human health impacts).

The increasing economic cost and toll of disasters should be a significant incentive for governments and humanitarian organizations to focus more attention on preparedness, prevention and addressing the root causes of vulnerability.

Facts and figures:

  • 90% of all natural disasters are water-related. (UNISDR)
  • Since 1900, more than 11 million people have died as a consequence of drought and more than 2 billion have been affected by drought, more than any other physical hazard. (FAO)
  •  Asia is the region most vulnerable to water-related disasters, accounting for more than 45% of fatalities and more than 90% of the people affected by disasters between 1980 and 2006. (UNESCO, 2009)
  • Around 74% of all natural disasters between 2001 and 2018 were water-related and during the past 20 years, the total number of deaths caused only by floods and droughts exceeded 166,000, while floods and droughts affected over three billion people, and caused total economic damage of almost US$700 billion. (UN WWDR, 2020).
  • Droughts accounted for 5% of natural disasters, affecting 1.1 billion people, killing 22,000, and causing US$100 billion in damage between 1995 and 2015. (UNISDR, 2015)
  • For the 68.5 million people who have been forced to flee their homes, accessing safe water services is highly problematic. (UNHCR, 2017)
  • 700 million people worldwide could be displaced by intense water scarcity by 2030. (Global Water Institute, 2013)
  • Since 1900, more than 11 million people have died as a consequence of drought and more than 2 billion have been affected by drought, more than any other physical hazard. (FAO 2013)
  • By 2050, rising populations in flood prone lands, climate change, deforestation, loss of wetlands and rising sea levels are expected to increase the number of people vulnerable to flood disaster to 2 billion. (UNESCO, 2012) (Source)

Did you know:

  • Warming beyond 1.5°C will substantially increase the risk of global species extinctions.
  • The ocean is already warmer, more acidic and less productive.
  • Around 7 million people die every year from exposure to polluted air.
  • Nature-based solutions could provide one third of net reductions in greenhouse gas emissions required to meet Paris Agreement goals.
  • Bold climate action could deliver $26 trillion in economic benefits by 2030.
  • Renewable energy is getting cheaper all the time.
  • Switching to a clean economy could produce over 65 million new low-carbon jobs.
  • An investment of $1.8 trillion from 2020 to 2030 in adaptation could generate $7.1 trillion in total net benefits. (SOurce)

Over the last two decades, at least 1.65 billion people have been affected by floods and 1.43 billion by droughts. The economic and social costs have been enormous.

A new report from the World Bank offers a new perspective – an “EPIC Response” to better manage hydro-climatic risks. “EPIC Response” stands for: “Enable, Plan, Invest, Control”, which will help national governments to respond to and have a greater impact on managing flood and drought risks.

An EPIC Response: Innovative Governance for Flood and Drought Risk Management

Further reading on 📚  floods from UNCCD Library

📚 Fact of the Month - July 2021 - Global terrestrial restoration costs – not including costs of restoring marine ecosystems – are estimated to be at least USD 200 billion per year by 2030

New UNEP synthesis report  is a call to action for anyone and everyone to join the #GenerationRestoration movement to prevent, halt and reverse the degradation of ecosystems worldwide.

Countries need to deliver on their existing commitments to restore 1 billion hectares of degraded land and make similar commitments for marine and coastal areas. Ecosystem restoration is one of the most important ways of delivering nature-based solutions for food insecurity, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and biodiversity loss. Facing the triple threat of climate change, loss of nature and pollution, the world must deliver on its commitment to restore at least one billion degraded hectares of land in the next decade – an area about the size of China.

The report focus is on 8 ecosystems, presents lots of data and examples, country cases , etc..key messages are available in 8 languages as well as interactive world map with countries’ commitments to restoration ) .

The report “Becoming #GenerationRestoration: Ecosystem restoration for people, nature and climate” is referenced in our Knowledge hub here

  • Global terrestrial restoration costs – not including costs of restoring marine ecosystems – are estimated to be at least USD 200 billion per year by 2030.
  • The report outlines that every 1 USD invested in restoration creates up to USD 30 in economic benefits.

This report presents the case for why we all must throw our weight behind a global restoration effort. Drawing on the latest scientific evidence, it explains the crucial role played by ecosystems from forests and farmland to rivers and oceans, and charts the losses that result from our poor stewardship of the planet.

For example:

  • around one third of the world’s farmland is degraded,
  • about 87 per cent of inland wetlands worldwide have disappeared since 1700, and
  • one third of commercial fish species are overexploited.
  • Degradation is already affecting the well-being of an estimated 3.2 billion people – that is 40 per cent of the world’s population.
  • Every single year, we lose ecosystem services worth more than 10 per cent of our global economic output.
  • If we can manage to reverse this trend, massive gains await us.
  • Reviving ecosystems and other natural solutions could contribute over one third of the total climate mitigation needed by 2030.
  • Restoration can also curb the risk of mass species extinctions and future pandemics.
  • Agroforestry alone could increase food security for 1.3 billion people.
  • Restoration on a global scale requires sustained investments.
  • But there is growing evidence that it more than pays for itself.

    For example,

  • restoring coral reefs to good health by 2030 could yield an extra USD 2.5 billion a year for both Mesoamerica and Indonesia; having doubled its forest cover since the 1980s,
  • Costa Rica has seen ecotourism grow to account for 6 per cent of GDP.
  • While restoration science is a youthful discipline, we already have the knowledge and tools we need to halt degradation and restore ecosystems.

  • Farmers, for instance, can draw on proven restorative practices such as sustainable farming and agroforestry.
  • Landscape approaches that give all stakeholders – including women and minorities – a say in decision-making are simultaneously supporting social and economic development and ecosystem health.
  • And policy makers and financial institutions are realizing the huge need and potential for green investment.

Among the Key messages:

  • Countries need to deliver on their existing commitments to restore 1 billion hectares of degraded land and make similar commitments for marine and coastal areas
  • Unfortunately, we are still going in the wrong direction.
  • Ecosystem restoration is needed on a large scale in order to achieve the sustainable development agenda
  • Ecosystem restoration delivers multiple benefits. It is one of the most important ways of delivering nature-based solutions for societal challenges.
📚 Word of the Week - NbS investments

State of Finance for Nature. Tripling investments in nature-based solutions by 2030 report “ calls for scaling up funding from the current level of $133 billion, most of which comes from public sources, to a total investment of $8.1 trillion, by 2050. 

To overcome the gap, the partners call for Governments, financial institutions and businesses to put nature at the centre of economic decision-making going forward

  • Although investing in nature supports the health of all beings, improves quality of life, and creates jobs, it accounts for just 2.5 per cent of projected economic stimulus spending in the wake of the pandemic.  Therefore, private capital will have to be increased to close the investment gap. 

Solutions such as the management, conservation and restoration of forests, will alone require some $203 billion in total annual expenditure globally. The report suggests coupling investments in restoration with financing for conservation, as an example.  The private sector has already developed several initiatives, but the authors stressed the need for companies and institutions to commit to boost finance and investment, in nature-based solutions.  NbS solutions can address all three Rio Conventions’ goals simultaneously, by providing applicable solutions to counter the adverse effects of climate change, environmental and land degradation, and biodiversity depletion. The CBD, UNFCCC and UNCCD have all considered NbS as an approach to meeting the goals of each convention, as outlined in Box 3.

Annual report on the state of finance for nature: This current report will be the inaugural report in a series to track global trends in public and private investment in NbS, to compare trends, improve data quality and showcase opportunities for governments, businesses and financiers. Four specific areas will be addressed in the next report:  The scope in the next report will cover both the terrestrial and marine environment more comprehensively and it will put forward land degradation targets.

The UNEP has produced the report alongside the World Economic Forum (WEF) and the Economics of Land Degradation (ELD) Initiative, hosted by German development agency GIZ in collaboration with Vivid Economics. 

Read further from our Knowledge Hub ; the full text report you can read here

 NOTE: NbS are related to climate as well as biodiversity and land degradation targets, while natural climate solutions (NCS)  are only related to climate. ( for NCS please check out the report also launched yesterday Consultation: Nature and Net Zero. The report shows how NCS are being prevented from fulfilling their potential at scale by conceptual and technical hurdles.

📚 Word of the Week - Land Restoration potential

The global potential for land restoration: Scenarios for the Global Land Outlook 2 study quantifies the potential effects of land restoration for soil, food, water, biodiversity and climate change  at the global and regional levels, using three global land-use scenarios up to 2050.

Three global land-use scenarios up to 2050 were constructed and analyzed to provide a view of the extent and risks of land degradation, and to estimate the potential of land restoration compared to a future without restoration.

These three scenarios are the Baseline, Restoration and Restoration & Protection scenarios. The effects of land restoration were assessed for natural area, biodiversity, soil organic carbon, agricultural yields, water regulation and carbon storage.

There are no silver bullets for choosing the right mix of policies or projects to incentivize land restoration at scale. There is a paucity of empirical evidence on combinations of policies and projects that have proved successful for land restoration. Such information is urgently needed as the required interventions are site- or country-specific, and also as benefits take decades to materialize.

This finding implies a need for more policy experimentation and evaluation to better understand how land restoration can be achieved at scale, at the lowest possible cost to societies. Such information is imperative for making the UN Decade of Restoration a success. Read further about the report referenced in our Knowledge Hub here

The 4 Returns Framework for Landscape Restoration

The 4 Returns Framework for landscape restoration that is presented here is a practical method that brings people together within landscapes and enables others outside those landscapes to participate. This approach has been tested for many years in several large landscapes and it is now time to present it to the world, to use it, to improve it further, and to co-create a new, shared language for a restoration economy and society.

The 4 Returns Framework is not a utopian dream; it is a practical approach that works in the real world, with real people, within conventional social, corporate and government frameworks. It represents a distillation of wisdom that has been brought together over many years and has been tested in practice. The aim of this report is asking others to join us in using this common language to scale up restoring billions of degraded hectares and together healing the relationship between people and within ourselves.

The 4 Returns Framework connects ecology, community values, spirit and culture, business and long-term economic sustainability at landscape level. It allows government, business and communities to co-create and deliver a common vision for a resilient landscape:

It is a conceptual and practical framework to help stakeholders achieve 4 RETURNS (inspiration, social returns, natural returns, financial returns); by following five processes (5 ELEMENTS: a landscape partnership, shared understanding, landscape vision and collaborative planning, taking action, and monitoring and learning); within a multifunctional landscape (3 ZONES: natural, combined and economic zones); with this transformation taking place over a realistic time period (MINIMUM 20 YEARS).

The 4 Returns Framework supports achievement of most of the Sustainable Development Goals and is itself based particularly around SDG 17 (building partnerships).  Read further about the report referenced in our Knowledge Hub here.

📚 Word of the Week - Water Security

"Climate change impacts on water security in global drylandsexamine current and projected climate change impacts on water security across the world's drylands up to the year 2100. Lead author, Professor Lindsay Stringer from the Department of Environment and Geography at the University of York says that "people in dryland areas are already adapting to climate changes, but they need to be supported with coherent system-oriented policies and institutions that put water security at their core.” Projected climate changes indicate that in a few decades, millions more people (approximately half the world's population) will be living under conditions of high water stress. The drylands' human and environmental systems could be hampered in their ability to adapt to water dynamics under climate change, with knock-on effects for other places beyond the drylands as well

  • The paper's authors strongly support the integration of water concerns across borders and sectors, through approaches such as Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM).
  • Professor Stringer explains that in order "to make sure no one gets left behind, more attention needs to be paid to how decisions about water management link to other things, like food, energy, livelihoods, migration and human health."

Professor Stringer also argues that achieving water security is not just an environmental challenge, but also a governance issue. Stakeholder engagement is increasingly important, particularly in complex contexts where dryland rivers flow across multiple national borders, and approaches like IWRM are really vital in shaping more equitable water resource allocation.

Follow our Khub :  Hot off the press: Climate change impacts on water security in global drylands to find out more

📚 Word of the Week - Drylands

The GLF Africa event dedicated two days to raising awareness about these drylands, which cover almost half the continent and give home to almost half its population. The prevailing message put forth by more than 200 speakers – from ministers to scientists to musicians – was that reversing degradation and ushering in a prosperous future for these landscapes is being driven by local communities, who are updating ancient land-sharing relationships between farmers, pastoralists and the ecosystems to reflect the new climate context. 

Major new initiatives used the event as a stage for their unveiling. The Global Environment Facility (GEF) launched its new Dryland Sustainable Landscapes Program, including announcing major investment in dryland countries in Africa and Central Asia.

The Government of Luxembourg announced its partnership with the GLF on the new Finance for Nature Platform, which aims to massively grow investment into climate and sustainable land use, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. The GLF also solidified that it will lead knowledge-sharing efforts to mainstream good practices for zero-deforestation in the Food, Land Use and Restoration (FOLUR) impact program funded by the GEF and led by the World Bank.

The GLF also used the event to open applications for five new GLFx chapters – locally-led GLF groups implementing self-started environmental initiatives – across the greater Sahel region. The Robert Bosch Foundation has partnered with the GLF to give each of the new chapters seed funding of EUR 5,000 to channel toward restoring their Sahel landscapes.

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) released its Framework for Ecosystem Restoration Monitoring (FERM), which comes in time for the launch of the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration that begins 5 June and was a focus of the event.

The Regreening Africa app, for example, was created by scientists from World Agroforestry (ICRAF) as a tool that smallholder farmers implementing agroforestry methods can download on their smartphones and simultaneously access and upload new information. With the app, farmers can map and upload their fields’ boundaries, recording details down to the detail of species’ placement, services and survival rate. Coupled with ICRAF’s systematic data collection of the same landscapes, a comprehensive knowledge base of ‘what works best where’ is then put in the hands of the farmers.

“Every policy we make must have women and youth at the front of it,” said Nigeria’s Federal Minister of State for Environment Sharon Ikeazor, noting that women are responsible for up to 80 percent of food production in developing countries. Sixty percent of the African population is under the age of 25.

“For me, the policy should turn to securing tenure,” echoed Cécile Bibiane Ndjebet, president of REFACOF, an African organization focused on women’s rights. “If you want to plant trees, you need secure tenure. If you want to do anything in the field, you need secure tenure.”

Alternative solutions must also be developed for when policy cannot overcome familial and cultural traditions in local communities, speakers said. In a powerful narrative, June Jerop Kimaiyo, an intern at the Youth in Landscapes Initiative, shared how she has had to fight older male members of her family to have access to her inherited land. “The law of Kenya says that land should be equally divided among heirs, regardless of gender,” she said. “Yet, this is not recognized in my culture. And while the situation varies across countries in Africa, I know that women and young people like me are facing similar challenges.

Drylands are terrestrial landscapes where the evaporation and transpiration of water into the atmosphere is at least 150 percent greater than the amount of rainfall. Drylands cover more than 40 percent of the world’s terrestrial area, hold a third of all biodiversity hotspots and 44 percent of agricultural land. They’re categorized based on their aridity, rising from dry and sub-humid lands such as savannahs and grasslands up to hyper-arid lands like the Sahara.

“About one-third of the world’s population lives in drylands, and yet they are largely overlooked and ignored,” said Robert Nasi, director general of the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR).

Africa’s drylands are facing steep challenges due to climate change and lessening rainfall, striking regions with water scarcity and raising temperatures in the Sahel – a particularly vulnerable dryland region that borders the Sahara – 1.5 times faster than the global average.

“Without its drylands, Africa would not be Africa,” said Thiaw. “Change is homemade, not imported… it is time to reset, to rethink Africa’s development, to turn challenges into opportunities.” 

Africa’s drylands are facing steep challenges due to climate change and lessening rainfall, striking regions with water scarcity and raising temperatures in the Sahel – a particularly vulnerable dryland region that borders the Sahara – 1.5 times faster than the global average. The economic fallout of COVID-19 has seen declines in livestock exports fall by up to 50 percent and rises in imported food prices by the same amount. Solutions to reverse degradation in drylands must include water, land, vegetation and human resources at once. “Anything that is a single, simplistic, silver-bullet solution is likely to fail,” said Nasi. ( Source: GLF)

📚 Fact of the Month - June 2021 - By 2050, total investment needs will amount to USD 8.4 trillion cumulatively, reaching over USD 536 billion per year, four times the amount invested today

The new “State of Finance for Nature” report assesses how much public and private investment is being directed towards nature-based solutions and provides insights into the extent to which governments, businesses and financiers are “walking-the-talk”.

By comparing existing capital flows to recognized investment needs, the report quantifies how serious governments, businesses and financiers really are about tackling the biodiversity, land degradation and climate crises.

The findings are clear: we are not investing nearly enough in nature. Indeed, investments in nature-based solutions will have to triple by 2030 and increase four-fold by 2050 if we are to have a shot at solving the planetary emergency.

Galvanize political and business momentum to protect and restore our earth. The upcoming summits related to climate, biodiversity, land degradation and food systems as well as the launch of the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration provide opportunities to harness political and business momentum by putting NbS as a central pillar across all these key events. Any strategy that aims to repair our relationship with nature and to harness the potential of NbS would need to strongly feature protection and conservation measures for high carbon value ecosystems like peatlands, mangroves and primary forests as a central pillar

Annual report on the state of finance for nature: This current report will be the inaugural report in a series to track global trends in public and private investment in NbS, to compare trends, improve data quality and showcase opportunities for governments, businesses and financiers.

Four specific areas will be addressed in the next report:  The scope in the next report will cover both the terrestrial and marine environment more comprehensively and it will put forward land degradation targets.

Read the full text report State of Finance for Nature. Tripling investments in nature-based solutions by 2030 

Economic modelling was used to estimate the costs of switching from a business-as-usual trajectory to a trajectory that is aligned with climate change, biodiversity and land degradation targets.

The methodology (see Annex for more detail) estimates the future NbS investment under climate and biodiversity targets (land degradation is considered implicitly), for four asset types: forests, mangroves, peatland and silvopasture. These four were chosen because they are expected to make the largest contribution to these objectives in the future.

NbS solutions can address all three Rio Conventions’ goals simultaneously, by providing applicable solutions to counter the adverse effects of climate change, environmental and land degradation, and biodiversity depletion. The CBD, UNFCCC and UNCCD have all considered NbS as an approach to meeting the goals of each convention, as outlined in Box 3. Note: NbS are related to climate as well as biodiversity and land degradation targets, while natural climate solutions are only related to climate.

In comparing existing capital flows to NbS-relevant sectors to the needs of international targets related to addressing the climate crisis, land degradation and reversing biodiversity loss, it is clear that investment needs will have to almost triple by 2030 and increase to over USD 536 billion/year by 2050, at least four times the amount invested today.

The way to overcome this investment gap is to place nature at the heart of how economic growth is generated in the future. Instead of disinvesting from nature, the focus should be on investing in nature to support sustainable economic growth in the twenty-first century.

In order to meet future climate, biodiversity and land degradation targets, public and private actors will need to scale up their annual investments by at least four times over the next three decades (Figure 6).

By 2050, total investment needs will amount to USD 8.4 trillion cumulatively, reaching over USD 536 billion per year, four times the amount invested today. These estimates are based on an immediate action scenario, in which the global community is assumed to act now to halt climate change at 2 degrees; reverse loss and stabilize biodiversity intactness by 2050 at today’s levels; and stop land degradation. Decisive action begins in 2020 in this scenario. ( Source)

📚 Word of the Week - Rural development

World Social Report 2021: Reconsidering Rural Development launched 26 May calls for an urgent reconsideration of rural development is needed for achieving the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The current strategies and patterns of rural development are failing to meet either the socioeconomic or the environmental Goals of this Agenda. 

  • 4 out of every 5 people who face extreme poverty around the world live in rural areas.

The report calls for an end to the rural-urban divide and offers new approaches to advance rural development that would allow rural populations to reach the urban standard of living without having to migrate to urban areas.  

Many rural areas are witnessing severe depletion and degradation of natural resources, contributing to climate change and the recurrence of zoonotic diseases, such as COVID-19. The COVID-19 pandemic, together with already persistent high levels of poverty and inequalities, are threatening to stall progress for the world’s rural populations.

For example, by 2030:

  • an estimated 20 per cent of the global rural population is not likely to have access to basic drinking water (SDG 6.1.1) and
  • 41 per cent could be without access to basic sanitation services (SDG 6.2.1).
  • The population affected by water stress, a significant share of which resides in rural areas, could also increase from 2.5 billion to 3.7 billion people by 2030, despite the projected increase in global water-use efficiency (SDG 6.4.1).
  • With water demand estimated to increase to about 6,000 billion m3 by 2030, the world is likely to experience a significant water deficit
  • Some 38 per cent of biodiversity could similarly be lost by 2030 because of the impact of agricultural and industrial activities and climate change (SDG 15.5).
  • It is also predicted that about 95 per cent of the Earth’s land areas could become degraded by 2050, and the world could run out of topsoil in 60 years, unless there is a major change in the current rural development strategy (SDG 15.3).
  • Furthermore, food-related CO2 emissions alone—which are projected to double by 2050 without changes to current foods systems and consumption and production patterns—could result in the global average temperature rising 1.5 and 2.0 degrees Celsius by 2050 and 2100, respectively (SDG 13).

The World Social Report 2021, a flagship publication of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) on major social development issues offers new strategies to ensure that the: 3.4 billion people who live in rural areas are not left behind as global efforts focus on boosting socio-economic growth and tackling climate change in the middle of the COVID-19 recovery.  

📚 Word of the Week- Pastoralism

Pastoralism is a form of animal husbandry where domesticated animals known as livestock are released onto large vegetated outdoor lands (pastures) for grazing, historically by nomadic people who moved around with their herds. The species involved include cattle, camels, goats, yaks, llamas, reindeer, horse and sheep.

Pastoralism is a form of animal husbandry where domesticated animals known as livestock are released onto large vegetated outdoor lands (pastures) for grazing, historically by nomadic people who moved around with their herds. The species involved include cattle, camels, goats, yaks, llamas, reindeer, horse and sheep.

The conditions required for sustainable pastoralism generally depend on the public policies of each concerned country and current legislation. Professional pastoral farmers are getting organized and international organizations are beginning to take stock of the economic and ecological challenges concerning pastoralism for the future.  

Did you know facts and figures

  • About 1 billion animals worldwide are herded by pastoralists. These include sheep, goats, cattle, camels, yaks, horses and reindeer.
  • 65% of meat, and 70% of milk sold on local markets in the Sahel region come from pastoral systems.
  • Pastoralists are key to the food security in such areas as drylands, highlands, wetlands, and shrublands where crop production is difficult.
  • Pastoralists promote rangeland health by improving soil fertility, conserving biodiversity, managing fires and accelerating nutrient cycling.
  • Pastoralists follow customary and community-based rangeland management practices over a range of land tenure types.
  • Pastoralists employ strategic mobility to adapt to variable climatic conditions
  • Pastoralism is not just a livelihood, but also a cultural system closely linked to its natural environment. Pastoralists have a treasure of local and indigenous knowledge.
  • Pastoralist women have varied roles in the pastoral household, caring for livestock, land and sometimes finances. (Source)

"The new Rangelands atlas is a valuable tool to gather data and to experiment with participatory forms of mapping, together with the pastoralist communities on the ground.

  • The world's pastoralists - estimated to be over 200 million people - need to be heard, supported and recognized for their role in caring and sustainably managing rangelands, and therefore must be part of the solution to the critical environmental situation that we find ourselves in,"  Fernando García Dory, Pastoralists Focal Point, Rangelands Initiative

The Rangelands Atlas consists of preliminary maps that are a starting point for gathering more detailed data on the exact ecosystem services and economic and social benefits that rangelands deliver to people and nature.

“Rangelands include some of the earth’s most precious habitats and biodiversity and they support the livelihoods of millions of pastoralists who have a strong tradition of nature conservation. This Atlas provides the long-awaited evidence that rangelands need to be greatly elevated as an investment and policy priority in order to achieve sustainable development worldwide,” Jonathan Davies, International Union for Conservation of Nature Global Coordinator, Global Drylands Initiative (Source)

Further reading from UNCCD library collection on: 📚   pastoral livelihood systems  ; 📚   pastoralism

📚 Word of the Week - Environmental education

The 1972 United Nations Conference on the Environment in Stockholm was the first world conference to make the environment a major issue.

Principle 19: Education in environmental matters, for the younger generation as well as adults, giving due consideration to the underprivileged, is essential in order to broaden the basis for an enlightened opinion and responsible conduct by individuals, enterprises and communities in protecting and improving the environment in its full human dimension. It is also essential that mass media of communications avoid contributing to the deterioration of the environment, but, on the contrary, disseminate information of an educational nature on the need to protect and improve the environment in order to enable man to develop in every respect.

The Tbilisi Declaration was adopted by acclamation at the close of the intergovernmental conference. The declaration noted the unanimous accord in the important role of environmental education in the preservation and improvement of the world's environment, as well as in the sound and balanced development of the world's communities. 

A reflection on the conjunction of the two words ‘environment’ and ‘education’ raises the key questions of why, when and for what purpose they have been linked. Presumably answers to these questions range from the feelings and concerns of individuals through to events of international and global significance.

The way we currently live is not sustainable. Urgent change is needed, but lasting change is impossible without education. "Learn for our planet. A global review of how environmental issues are integrated in education"  presents the extent to which environmental issues are integrated in primary and secondary education policies and curricula across 46 UNESCO Member States.

  • Over half of education policies and curricula studied made no mention of climate change.
  • Only 19 per cent made reference to biodiversity.

Governments, education policy-makers, academics, and education and environmental stakeholders need to further commit to Education for Sustainable Development. Let’s ensure learners everywhere are change-makers who learn and act for our planet! 

Countries have made progress:

  • 83 per cent of education policies and curricula studied addressed the environment at least once, and
  • 69 per cent mentioned sustainability - but it is clear that more needs to be done to prepare learners with the knowledge, skills, values and attitudes to act for our planet.

Follow our "Environment for young minds" education page to learn more or get the latest from our library collection on

“ Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world” Nelson Mandela

📚 Word of the Week - Rangelands

A new Rangelands atlas published today shows that 54 per cent of the world’s land surface consists of vast  tracts of land covered by grass, shrubs or sparse, hardy vegetation that support millions of pastoralists, hunter  gatherers, ranchers and large populations of wildlife--and store large amounts of carbon.

Yet while most climate  plans focus on forests, much less importance is given to rangelands, leaving this massive planetary ecosystems  supporting people and nature exposed to a wide variety of threats.

This is among the key conclusions of the new Rangelands Atlas—an ambitious, first of its kind inventory compiled  by a coalition of prominent international environmental, conservation and agricultural organisations cataloguing  the contemporary character of the world’s rangelands, which include the Mongolian steppe, the savannas of  Africa, the pampas of South America and the Great Plains of North America. Their goal is to make rangelands a prominent part of policy discussions around everything from confronting  climate change to reducing poverty, managing threats to biodiversity and freshwater, and developing sustainable  food systems.

For the first time ever, we have an accurate understanding of how much of our planet’s land is covered by  rangelands. So far, conservation and development efforts have focused mostly on forests – we now know that  rangelands should also receive increased attention,” said Shirley Tarawali, assistant director general of the  International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), which collaborated on the Rangeland Atlas.

The atlas shows that in the past three centuries more than 60  per cent of wildlands and woodlands have been converted – an area larger than North America - and an area  approximately the size of Australia (7.45 million km2) is now used to produce crops. This land-use change  contributes to the climate crisis, but the atlas shows rangelands will also suffer from global warming. Drastic  effects are predicated in an area twice the size of Europe, with nature being dangerously destabilized and the  ability to produce food, fuel and fibre being reduced. 

The Rangelands Atlas helps to fill that void and will be regularly updated. It captures key elements of the  importance of rangelands, a large portion of which are dry, desert-like areas, for supporting people, wildlife and  vegetation. For example, 70 per cent of Mongolia is rangelands. In Chad, grazing livestock across remote tracts  of parched rangelands accounts for 11 per cent of GDP. The Northern Great Plains in the United States are one of the world’s four remaining intact temperate grasslands, supporting a menagerie of plants, birds and reptile  species and providing home to several Native American nations. But the atlas reveals that due to threats,  including large-scale industrial agriculture, these lands are being lost at a faster rate than the destruction of the  Amazon rainforest.  

To date, 12 per cent of rangelands are designated as protected areas. Much of the rest is threatened from  escalating conversion, particularly for croplands.

DID YOU KNOW: Key Figures about rangelands

  • Rangelands cover 54% of global terrestrial surface (148,326,000 km2) to a total of 79,509,421 km2.
  • The largest rangeland biome is deserts and xeric shrublands covering 27,984,645 km2 or 19% of global terrestrial surface.

Rangelands are made up of seven biomes or rangeland types namely:

  • 35% deserts and xeric shrublands,
  • 1% flooded grasslands and savannas,
  • 4% mediterranean forests, woodlands and scrub,
  • 6% montane grasslands and shrublands,
  • 13% temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands,
  • 26% tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas and shrublands, and
  • 15% tundra. 

 Further reading on 📚 rangelands from our library collection 

📚 Fact of the Month - May 2021 - High-level dialogue on desertification, land degradation and drought -14 June  

 | High-level dialogue on desertification, land degradation and drought - This is the meeting where you can begin to see how world leaders and governments are thinking about the future.

In accordance with General Assembly resolutions 74/220 and 75/218, the President of the General Assembly will convene a High-level Dialogue to assess the progress made in the fight against DLDD during the UN Decade for Deserts and the Fight against Desertification and and map the way forward

The COVID-19 pandemic has shut down economies for nearly 18 months now. Participating at this event will give you an idea of what governments are thinking about the road to recovery.

Scientists expect pandemics to increase, unless we change how we live, by planning and managing the land differently in the future. In short, by setting up new policies in land use and management policies.

As the first world leaders’ meeting since 2020, defining the path to recovery and to the future will not only start at this meeting. They ideas and solutions for action coming out of this meeting will influence broader processes and events that follow.

Starting with the Food Summit in July/September and the two global environmental Conferences that taking place later this year.  The (15th) Conference the Parties to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity taking place in October in Kunming, China, that will set the agenda on species and the land for up to 2030.

This will be followed by the (26th) Conference of the Parties to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Changing direction in a planned and deliberate way will as well as reversing past trends during the Decade on Ecosystem Restoration that starts this year will ensure present and future generations live better and in harmony with nature.

In accordance with General Assembly resolutions 74/220 and 75/218, the President of the General Assembly will convene a High-level Dialogue to assess the progress made in the fight against DLDD during the UN Decade for Deserts and the Fight against Desertification and and map the way forward(Source)

From the history of UNCCD DLDD High level meetings: 

In December 2010, the General Assembly adopted a resolution on the “Implementation of the UN Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa” [A/RES/65/160] and decided to convene a high-level meeting on the theme:

Addressing desertification, land degradation and drought in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication on 20 September 2011

Actions to reverse increasing loss of productive lands in world's dry regions the focus of UN high-level meeting. More than two billion people are affected by desertification, which leads to poverty, drought, famine, demographic pressures

New York, United States, 19 September 2011 – The United Nations will convene a high-level meeting on Tuesday, 20 September to focus on actions to protect the drylands, home to two billion people. Productive lands in dry regions around the world are under increasing threat due to poor land management practices and climate change.

More than 12 million hectares of productive land are lost due to desertification every year, the equivalent of losing an area the size of South Africa every decade. While productive land becomes scarcer, providing food for the 9 billion people predicted to live on Earth in 2050 will require a 70 per cent increase in global food production. (Source)

📚 Word of the Week - Desertification

Globally, one fifth of Earth’s land area – more than 2 billion hectares – is degraded, including more than half of all agricultural land. Desertification is threatening the livelihoods of 1 billion people in over 100 countries 

Each year, more than 12 million hectares of land are lost to desertification, land degradation and drought (DLDD).

The world loses 24 billion tons of fertile soil annually due to dryland degradation, with significant negative impacts on food production and economic activity. 

Our planet is ailing, land degradation affects some 3.2 billion people, 70% of the world’s land has been transformed by human activity.

Unsustainable land-use change, including deforestation, has been identified as the primary driver of emerging infectious diseases. 

As General Assembly resolution 75/218  affirmed, combating desertification, land degradation and drought, and achieving land degradation neutrality, are key to accelerate achieving the Sustainable Development Goals to protect livelihoods, prevent and prepare for future pandemics, and build back better from COVID-19.

For every dollar spent on land restoration – including through low-skilled and labour-intensive shovel-ready projects – at least 9 dollars of economic benefits can be expected. Large-scale ecosystem restoration efforts have the potential to create up to 40 jobs for every 1 million dollars invested. (Source)

📚 Word of the Week - Land degradation

The extent and severity of land degradation worldwide, combined with the negative effects of climate change, population growth and an ever-increasing demand for natural resources, requires immediate and assertive action. The economic costs of desertification and land degradation are estimated at USD 490 billion per year. Avoiding land degradation through sustainable land management can generate up to USD 1.4 trillion of economic benefits.

  • Land degradation currently undermines well-being of 3.2 billion people, more than 40 per cent of the entire world population.
  • The Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) estimates that over 70 per cent of all natural, ice-free land has been transformed by human activity, devastating global biodiversity.
  • Food, feed, and fibre production also contribute significantly to climate change, with around a quarter of greenhouse gas emissions coming from agriculture, forestry and other land uses, according to the IPCC Special Report on Climate Change and Land. Further reading 

IPBES Thematic report on Land Degradation (2018)

  • Well-being of over 3.2 billion people undermined by land degradation
  • Under 25% of Earth’s land surface free from substantial human impacts;
  • by 2050 it will drop to under 10% –mostly in deserts, mountainous areas, tundra and polar areas unsuitable for human use or settlement.
  • 87% of wetlands lost globally in the last 300 years; 54% since 1900.
  • Biodiversity loss to reach 38–46% by 2050. Leading causes of biodiversity loss are habitat transformation (ie conversions, eg of forest to farmland) and habitat degradation
  • Population in drylands will have increased from 2.7 billion in 2010 to 4 billion by 2050.
  • Every 5% loss of GDP, itself partly caused by degradation, associated with 12% increase in likelihood of violent conflict. Land degradation and climate change are likely to force 50 to 700 million people to migrate by 2050
  • By 2050, crop yields to fall by an average 10% globally, and up to 50% in certain regions due to land degradation and climate change.
  • Economic cost of biodiversity and ecosystem services loss from land degradation is over 10% of annual global gross product.
  • Between 2000 and 2009, annual emissions from land degradation were 3.6–4.4 billion tonnes of CO2-e. by 2050, losses of 36 Gt of carbon from soils projected – mostly in Sub-Saharan Africa.

World Atlas of Desertification 2018 (World Atlas of desertification. Mapping Land Degradation and Sustainable Land Management Opportunities)

  • The main findings show that population growth and changes in our consumption patterns put unprecedented pressure on the planet's natural resources:
  • While land degradation is a global problem, it takes place locally and requires local solutions.
  • Greater commitment and more effective cooperation at the local level are necessary to stop land degradation and loss of biodiversity
  • As a consequence of accelerated deforestation it will become more difficult to mitigate the effects of climate change
  • By 2050, up to 700 million people are estimated to have been displaced due to issues linked to scarce land resources.
  • The figure could reach up to 10 billion by the end of this century. 
  • Land degradation and climate change are estimated to lead to a reduction of global crop yields by about 10% by 2050.
  • Most of this will occur in India, China and sub-Saharan Africa, where land degradation could halve crop production.
  • Over 75% of the Earth's land area is already degraded, and over 90% could become degraded by 2050.
  • Globally, a total area half of the size of the European Union (4.18 million km²) is degraded annually, with Africa and Asia being the most affected.
  • The economic cost of soil degradation for the EU is estimated to be in the order of tens of billions of euros annually.
📚 Word of the Week - Drought

Land and drought128 countries intend to set voluntary national land degradation neutrality targets Targets for 90 of these countries add up to over 450 million hectares of land for restoration; more than half of the restoration potential land restoration pledged globally

📚 Word of the Week - The Sahel 

The negative image of the Sahel is a stranglehold on the great potential for development in the region. A more balanced narrative can trigger action for a productive Sahel and can be based on innovative approaches and a conducive policy environment to value natural resources.

Despite a rich set of information, the potential of the Sahel is still not flagged with sound knowledge that can be opposed to the conspicuous depressed perception. Positive transformation pathways require many improvements in the governance, finance and equity issues with a particular reference to the youth and women. The Sahel can sustain its sustainable development if transformation occurs in natural resources management.

The new paper co-authored by the UNCCD Executive Secretary Mr. Ibrahim Thiaw and published by ScienceDirect analyses: The opportunities related to natural resources The potential and challenges for deep rapid transformation based on sound resources management practices Areas for job creation and livelihood protection; and New models for financing these developments. Land resources opportunities for a growing prosperity in the Sahel

The Land of opportunities. A stable Sahel, with a population of over 300 million and a rising urbanization trend, offers immense opportunities for the global market. The Sahel, the vast semi-arid region of Africa separating the Sahara Desert to the north and tropical savannas to the south, is as much a land of opportunities as it is of challenges. Although it has abundant human and natural resources, offering tremendous potential for rapid growth, there are deep-rooted challenges—environmental, political and security— that may affect the prosperity and peace of the Sahel.

For this reason, the United Nations has come up with a unique support plan targeting 10 countries to scale up efforts to accelerate prosperity and sustainable peace in the region. (Source)

United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) policy dialogue in partnership with the Rockefeller Foundation took place at the stunning Bellagio Centre in Italy. The discussion theme was “A Land of Opportunities: Framing Contextual and Practical Solutions for Lasting Peace and Prosperity in the Sahel.’ UNCCD introduced an exciting initiative aimed at reversing present trends in the Sahel, and restoring its economic, social and environmental capital.  The initiative focuses on the large-scale mobilization of communities, social groups and networks to accelerate installation of clean energy, restore degraded lands and catalyse the development of rural enterprise across the Sahel belt, with a special focus on youth and women.  

Read further about Sahel  and visit our special page 📚 The Sahel: Land of Opportunities, Land with a Future

📚 The new report "Drought, desertification and regreening in the Sahel" available in English and French

📚 Fact of the Month - April 2021 -  A WHO report on the burden of disease from environmental risks analysed the 133 diseases listed in the WHO’s Global Health Observatory and found 101 linked to the environment

The diseases with the largest environmental fraction (in dalys, which combine years of life lost and years lived with disability for comparability of disease burden across diseases) include cardiovascular diseases, diarrhoeal diseases and lower respiratory infections. ambient and household air pollution, and water, sanitation and hygiene are the main environmental drivers of those diseases.

Mortality and burden of disease from unhealthy environments: In 2016, 13.7 million people died as a result of living or working in an unhealthy environment, representing 24% of all deaths. When accounting for both death and disability, the fraction of the global burden of disease due to the environment is 23%. In children under five years, up to 28% of all deaths could be prevented, if environmental risks were removed. 68% of these attributable deaths and 51% of attributable DALYs could be estimated with evidence-based comparative risk assessment methods, the impacts of other environmental exposures were assessed through expert opinion.

  • An estimated 12.6 million deaths each year are attributable to unhealthy environments
  • 24% of all estimated global deaths are linked to the environment ...That’s roughly 13.7 million deaths a year Infographic
  • Children under five and adults between 50 and 75 years old are most affected by the environment.
  • Low- and middle-income countries bear the greatest share of environmental disease.
  • In 2016, household air pollution was responsible for 3.8 million deaths, and 7.7% of the global mortality(Source)
  • Globally, more than 820 million people have insufficient food, leading to malnutrition and the risk of infectious diseases.  
  • An even larger number of people consume an unhealthy diet that contributes to premature death and morbidity from noncommunicable diseases. Both these extremes occur while pressures on food systems increase (Willett et al., 2019). As populations increase and standards of living and nutrition improve, the demand for food will continue to rise.
  • The current world population is 7.6 million and is projected to increase to 8.6 billion in 2030, and 9.8 billion in 2050.
  • The population of sub-Saharan Africa, for example, is projected to grow by 124 per cent in the same period (UN/DESA, 2019b). The challenge is how to produce more food, of better nutritional quality, to an increasing population, but without further stressing the land.
  • The relationship between poverty, DLDD and health is well established. In 2015, 736 million people lived in extreme poverty, with 80 per cent in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, two billion rural people live on poor agricultural land.
  • Food shortage related impacts on nutrition are some of the most direct DLDD impacts on human health, especially in low-income countries.
  • Strategies to avoid land degradation and to ensure land sustainability and land restoration would protect and promote health in the long term (WHO/WPRO, 2017).Table 8.Health sector actions needed to respond to DLDD challenges (Source Land Under Pressure – Health Under Stress(UNCCD GLO paper)
  • Dust storms were associated with global cardiopulmonary mortality of about 402,000 people in 2005 with 3.47 million years of life lost in that single year. Although globally only 1.8% of cardiopulmonary deaths were caused by dust storms, in the countries of the Sahara region, Middle East, South and East Asia, dust storms were suggested to be the cause of 15–50% of all cardiopulmonary deaths ( Source )

WHO study Preventing disease through healthy environments. A global assessment of the burden of disease from environmental risks provides an approximate estimate of how much disease can be prevented by reducing the environmental risks to health.

  • it includes a meta-synthesis of key evidence relating diseases and injuries to the environment.
  • it brings together quantitative estimates of the disease burden attributable to the environment using a combination of approaches that includes cra, epidemiological data, transmission pathways and expert opinion.
  • the synthesis of evidence linking 133 diseases and injuries, or their groupings, to the environment has been reviewed to provide an overall picture of the disease burden that could be prevented through healthier environments.
  • environmental risks to health are defined, in this study, as “all the physical, chemical and biological factors external to a person, and all related behaviours, but excluding those natural environments that cannot reasonably be modified.”(Source) WHO Public health and environment
  • World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that environmental stressors are responsible for 12–18 % of all deaths in the 53 countries of the WHO Europe Region. Improving the quality of the environment in key areas such as air, water and noise can prevent disease and improve human health.(Source)

Air pollution is the single largest environmental health risk in Europe, and is associated with heart disease, stroke, lung disease and lung cancer. Exposure to air pollution is estimated to result in over 400 000 premature deaths in the EU each year.

Further reading from UNCCD library ;  

📚 Word of the Week - Forests restoration

The global forest area in 2020 is estimated at 4.06 billion ha, which is 31 percent of the total land area.This area is equivalent to 0.52 ha of forest per capita,  although forests are not distributed equally among the world’s people or geographically.

Forty-five percent of the world’s forests are in the tropical domain, followed by the boreal (27 percent), temperate (16 percent) and subtropical (11 percent) domains (Figure 5). Table 2 shows the distribution of forest area at the regional and sub regional levels. Europe accounts for 25 percent of the world’s forest area, followed by South America (21 percent), North and Central America (19 percent), Africa (16 percent), Asia (15 percent) and Oceania (5 percent). More than half (54 percent) of the world’s forest area is in only five countries – the Russian Federation, Brazil, Canada, the United States of America and China. The ten countries with the largest forest area account for about two thirds (66 percent) of the world total (Table 3). (Source)

The World Bank estimates that up to 150 million people could be pushed into extreme poverty this year. Forest ecosystems deliver goods and services across seasons and years that support the livelihoods of 1.6 billion people-a crucial safety net for local populations in times of hardship.

The sustainable use of biodiversity needs to be part of the blue print for‘ Building Back Better’. Global recovery programs must have strong environmental safeguards in place and make full use of the opportunities in the forest sector to reset economies on a greener track. (Source)

Forests cover 31 percent of the world’s land surface, store an estimated 296 gigatonnes of carbon and are home to the majority of the world’s terrestrial biodiversity. Forests are a source of fibre, fuel, food and fodder, and they provide livelihoods for millions of people, including many of the world’s poorest.

Some 2.4 billion people use wood-based energy for cooking. Forests help mitigate climate change and improve soil, air and water quality. If sustainably managed, forests are also a source of renewable raw materials, making a crucial contribution to building circular economies. (Source)

This past decade has seen remarkable progress in actions to conserve and restore biodiversity and promote its sustainable use. However, these efforts are still widely insufficient to “bend the curve” of biodiversity loss, especially in forest ecosystems. Forest habitat fragmentation and encroachment promotes new interfaces between humans as well as domestic and wild animals which can lead to the emergence of communicable diseases like COVID-19.

By protecting and restoring forests, we guard ourselves against new viruses that could be transmitted to humans. The pandemic has also created an unprecedented economic crisis, that reinforces inequalities by disproportionally affecting the poorest and most vulnerable populations.

The world is still reeling from the COVID-19 pandemic. Societies and economies need to confront huge challenges, such as putting our economies back on track, reducing poverty and inequalities, while addressing the impending climate and biodiversity crisis.

Forest restoration provides a common answer to all these issues. It can generate employment, benefit livelihoods, provide habitat for threatened species, sequester carbon and mitigate the effects of climate change. Restoring 350 million hectares of degraded land between now and 2030 could remove 13 to 26 gigatons of greenhouse gases out of the atmosphere and generate ecosystem services valued at $9 trillion. More than 1 billion people depend on forest foods and 2.4 billion people use fuelwood or charcoal to cook their daily meals, noted the Director General. "Forests are also green pharmacies. In developing countries, up to 80 percent of all medicinal drugs are plant-based."  

"Restoring forests - and managing them more sustainably - is a cost-effective option to provide multiple benefits for both people and the planet. Investments in forest restoration", "will contribute to economic recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic by creating green jobs, generating livelihoods, greening cities, and increasing food security."(FAO)

  • Forests are home to about 80% of the world’s terrestrial biodiversity, with more that 60,000 tree species.
  • Around 1.6 billion people depend directly on forests for food, shelter, energy, medicines and income.
  • The world is losing 10 million hectares of forest each year - about the size of Iceland - which accounts for 12 to 20 percent of the global greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change.
  • Land degradation affects almost 2 billion hectares – an area larger than South America.

The theme of the International Day of Forests for 2021 is "Forest restoration: a path to recovery and well-being. "Spending time around trees helps boost our immune system, lowers blood pressure and promotes relaxation Find out how forests benefit our physical and mental well-being. Learn about 7 secrets of forests (Source) 

  • The theme for 2022 is “Forests and Sustainable Production and Consumption”.
  • The theme for 2023 is “Forests and Health”. 

Further reading from UNCCD library ; forest restoration ; forests  

📚 Word of the Week - Drylands forests/ Forests in drylands

You might not expect it, but over 25 percent of the world’s forests are in drylands!  Trees are present on almost a third of the world's dryland regions, equalling 1.1 billion hectares of forest, according to FAO’s latest Dryland Assessment

Covering 41 percent of the global land area and home to 2.7 billion people, drylands supply about 60 percent of the world's food production and support more than a quarter of our forests and woodlands, according to Building climate-resilient dryland forests and agrosilvopastoral production systems
With four billion people projected to be living in drylands by 2050, there is a need to ensure the sustainability of food production systems under climate change and after COVID-19, which includes giving a greater voice to marginalized dryland populations.

Drylands, comprising hyper arid, arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid zones, cover about 6.1 billion hectares, or 41 percent of the Earth's land surface. Of these, some 1.1 billion hectares (18 percent) consist of forest, according to FAO's assessment. 

Globally, about 18 percent of drylands are forest, just over half of which have canopy density above 70 percent, while barren land accounts for 28 percent, grassland 25 percent and cropland 14 percent. Trees are also present on drylands outside of forests, notably in Asia and Europe, and all told there are trees on some 2 billion hectares of drylands.

  • Drylands are home to an estimated 2 billion people, half the world's livestock, and more than a third of global biodiversity hotspots, and provide critical migration points for birds.
  • Their ecosystems are vulnerable to water shortage, drought, desertification, land degradation and climate change impacts.
  • The world's drylands are expected to expand by 10 to 23 percent by the end of the 21st century, with dangerous ramifications for food security, livelihoods and human welfare. (Source)

The process of land degradation is particularly acute in the drylands, which are home to more than 2 billion people and contain 44 percent of the world's agriculturally productive land.

  • Drylands also host an impressive array of biodiversity, from the vital bacteria thriving in the soil to the livestock farmers depending on dryland resources to nourish the herd.
  • Accounting for more than 40 percent of the global terrestrial area, dryland landscapes are important to the functioning of many ecosystem services. (Source
  • Drylands are home to more than 2 billion people and contain 44% of the world’s agricultural land that supports over half of the world’s food production.
  • Drylands also host the most fragile ecosystems on the planet, including a quarter of all global biodiversity hot spots and many threatened and endemic species.
  • Drylands provide much of the world’s grain and livestock, many tree products and vegetable species, as well as globally important agro-biodiversity.
  • Climate change, a growing population, and especially overgrazing of rangelands will exacerbate problems in dryland areas and further induce land degradation, negatively affecting the livelihoods of its inhabitants, including 600 million smallholder farmers.

Investing in the sustainable management of drylands is becoming ever more urgent, given the convergence of a number of global trends: high population growth rates; increasing water scarcity, sometimes exacerbated by climate change; increasing food insecurity; out-migrations of young people; loss of cultural heritage; and decreasing habitats for wild species with detrimental effects for biodiversity. Such forces are highlighting the value of healthy drylands to the world, and their role in a secure global future. (Source)

  • FAO also released a new issue of Unasylva exploring the role of forests as nature-based solutions for water management. Its key message is that forested watersheds provide an estimated 75 percent of the world's accessible freshwater resources and thus constitute are crucial and cost-effective natural infrastructure for the production of high-quality water - including for cities - for more than half the world population. Their management for water will become increasingly important in the face of climate change.

Poor crop and soil management, and habitat destruction undermine the ability of drylands biodiversity to perform nutrient recycling, and water storage and filtration services.

  • On severely degraded land – devoid of biodiversity – as little as 5% of total rainfall may be used productively.
  • An estimated 20 million hectares of fertile land is degraded every year, and in the next 25 years global food production could fall by up to 12% as a result of land degradation – threatening the food and water security of the rising human population (Source; SourceDrylands facts and figures  

Trees and forests in drylands generate a wealth of environmental services, they provide habitats for biodiversity, protect against water and wind erosion and desertification, help water infiltrate soils and contribute to soil fertility.

  • Trees and forests in drylands help increase the resilience of landscapes and communities in the face of climate change.
  • Drylands contain 1.11 billion hectares of forests (18% of the global drylands area and 27% of the global forest area), 1.8 billion of grasslands (31% of the global dryland area), 0.86 billion hectares of cropland (14% of the global dryland area). 
  • Trees are present on 1.9 billion ha of the world’s drylands.
  • The long-term sustainability of dryland forests is in jeopardy due to population increase, growing demand for natural resources, poverty, social conflicts, lack of market opportunities and technical capacity, lack of appropriate policies, governance and investments and lack of integration among different sectors.
  • Climate change affects dryland forests and people as it exacerbates all these negative human-related factors.   (Source)  FAO. 2019. Trees, forests and land use in drylands: the first global assessment Full report. FAO Forestry Paper No. 184.

Local financing mechanisms for Forest and Landscape Restoration highlights financing opportunities for restoration that support local-level actors, including smallholder farmers, foresters and landowners.  

Further reading from UNCCD library ;  drylands  

📚 Word of the Week - Drought tolerant crops

Drought tolerance is the ability to which a plant maintains its biomass production during arid or drought conditions. Other plants, specifically crops like corn, wheat, and rice, have become increasingly tolerant to drought with new varieties created via genetic engineering. Staple food crops like sorghum, cassava, sweet potato, pearl millet, cowpea and groundnut are naturally more drought-tolerant than maize. For centuries, farmers in parts of West Africa have grown maize alongside cassava and sweet potatoes

📚 Word of the Week - Drought resilience

Nowadays drought is more often viewed as a natural event that requires society to take a pro-active preparedness approach to reduce societal vulnerability and increase resilience to drought [4]. As with any natural disaster, addressing drought should not be focused solely on managing the crisis, but needs to encompass the full cycle of disaster management.

A pro-active approach to increasing drought resilience is centred on better management of land and water resources.

Halting land degradation along with protecting and restoring natural capital and ecosystem services through land rehabilitation, ecological restoration and the allocation of water to environmental flows will strengthen ecological, economic and social systems against more severe impacts of drought and increase their ability to recover from disaster.

Nature-based solutions to drought management provide many other ecological benefits, including reducing risks from other natural disasters as well as mitigating and adapting to climate change. Pro-active ways to reduce drought risks also include improved drought monitoring, forecasting and early warning systems, along with assessments on drought vulnerability and impact for communities at risk.

The priorities and principles of the Sendai Framework provide a strong foundation for drought resilience, adaptation and management policies that can reduce risks associated with drought at national and subnational scales.

The first African Drought Conference, held in Windhoek, Namibia in August 2016, brought together African Member States and Parties to the UNCCD, as well as ministers, heads of Delegation and experts to discuss ways to enhance drought resilience in Africa. A coherent and integrated drought resilience and management policy framework would avoid fragmented and uncoordinated investments in land, water and socio-economic systems.

The Drought Resilience, Adaptation and Management Policy (DRAMP) Framework takes an integrated, multipronged approach to reducing risks and impacts of drought. Organized around six cross-cutting goals (Figure 1), the DRAMP Framework identifies pragmatic actions for countries to better prepare and respond to drought, and guides the design and implementation of drought policy at national to sub-national level.

The six goals of the DRAMP Framework are not mutually exclusive, with many of the actions for managing and adapting to drought applicable for more than one goal. The six goals of the DRAMP Framework are:

1. Reduce exposure to drought: reduce the potential for loss of people, livelihoods, ecosystem services and resources, infrastructure, as well as economic, social or cultural assets in places that could be adversely affected by drought;

2. Reduce vulnerability to drought: reduce tendency to be adversely affected by drought;

3. Increase resilience to drought risk: strengthen the ability of communities, ecosystems and economies to anticipate, absorb, accommodate or recover from the effects of drought quickly and efficiently by ensuring the preservation, restoration or improvement of natural capital;

4. Transformation: alter fundamental attributes of social, economic and ecological systems, including value systems; regulatory, legislative, or bureaucratic regimes; financial institutions; and technological or biological systems;

5. Prepare, respond and recover from drought: the backbone of management and planning approaches to reduce drought risk, including development of comprehensive drought monitoring and early warning systems.

6. Transfer and share drought risks: distribute risks among wider section of society to include those who benefit directly and indirectly from robust drought risk management. Read further (Source)

Becoming Drought Resilient: Why African Farmers Must Consider Drought Tolerant Crops 

Further reading from UNCCD library

📚 Fact of the Month - March 2021 - International Women's Day has occurred for well over a century with the first gathering held in 1911. The History behind the Day

2021 and beyond
The world has witnessed a significant change and attitudinal shift in both women's and society's thoughts about women's equality and emancipation. Many from a younger generation may feel that 'all the battles have been won for women' while many feminists from the 1970's know only too well the longevity and ingrained complexity of patriarchy. With more women in the boardroom, greater equality in legislative rights, and an increased critical mass of women's visibility as impressive role models in every aspect of life, one could think that women have gained true equality. The unfortunate fact is that women are still not paid equally to that of their male counterparts, women still are not present in equal numbers in business or politics, and globally women's education, health and the violence against them is worse than that of men. However, great improvements have been made. We do have female astronauts and prime ministers, school girls are welcomed into university, women can work and have a family, women have real choices. And so each year the world inspires women and celebrates their achievements.

Purple, green and white are the colors of International Women's Day. Purple signifies justice and dignity. Green symbolizes hope. White represents purity, albeit a controversial concept. The colors originated from the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) in the UK in 1908.(Source)

International Women’s Day 2021 theme – “Women in leadership: Achieving an equal future in a COVID-19 world

📚 Word of the Week - Benefits 4 NbSA

Nature-based Solutions (NbS) are defined by IUCN as “actions to protect, sustainably manage, and restore natural or modified ecosystems, that address societal challenges effectively and adaptively, simultaneously providing human well-being and biodiversity benefits”. Healthy ecosystems are the foundation upon which our societies and economies are built. Today, more than ever, we are reminded that to take care of ourselves, we must take care of the environment that sustains us. The COVID-19 pandemic has shaken the planet and led to a major call for transformative change. NbS are part and parcel of the global shift to build back better

Common ground: restoring land health for sustainable agriculture report, which highlighted the close links between landscape and soil biodiversity, farm yields, and farmers’ incomes and livelihoods  shows how more constructive inter-sectoral dialogue will help to build consensus around goals, targets and indicators for sustainable agriculture.

There is a solid common ground to be built upon, between the sectors of agriculture and conservation, on the need to restore land health.There are many examples of well-known and widely practiced agroecology approaches and we have moved beyond ‘proof of concept’ in several countries where practices like agroforestry, organic farming or conservation agriculture are growing in popularity. Meanwhile many governments have made commitments to sustainable agriculture and restoration of agricultural land.

IUCN has developed a Global Standard for NbS that will enable both the public and private sectors to design, implement and monitor NbS and accelerate society’s transition to a low carbon future. It is the first-ever tool that will help design robust, durable actions for deriving benefits for people and nature.The Global Standard is structured around eight criteria, ranging from biodiversity benefits and addressing societal challenges to criteria focused on governance, financial sustainability, and policy integration

Nature-based solutions could provide one third of net reductions in greenhouse gas emissions required to meet Paris Agreement goals. Warming beyond 1.5°C will substantially increase the risk of global species extinctions. The ocean is already warmer, more acidic and less productive. Around 7 million people die every year from exposure to polluted air. Bold climate action could deliver $26 trillion in economic benefits by 2030. Renewable energy is getting cheaper all the time. Switching to a clean economy could produce over 65 million new low-carbon jobs. An investment of $1.8 trillion from 2020 to 2030 in adaptation could generate $7.1 trillion in total net benefits.(Source)

  • The absence of clear definitions, guidelines, and metrics and methodologies to track, quantify, and value NbSA benefits may significantly inhibit the development and financing of a robust pipeline of NbSA-related investments. 
  • Overall, the amount of public international funding flowing to nature-based solutions (NbS) for adaptation is still relatively small, accounting for only US$3.8–8.7 billion, or approximately 0.6–1.4 percent of total climate finance flows and 1.5–3.4 percent of public climate finance flows, in 2018.   
  • Furthermore, Climate Policy Initiative estimates that total funding for both adaptation and mitigation in the “agriculture, forestry, land-use, and natural resource management” sectors in 2018 only accounted for 3 percent of all tracked climate finance or 7 percent of tracked public finance.
  • Funding for NbS for adaptation (NbSA) in 2018 was driven by a handful of major bilateral donors, including Germany, the United Kingdom, Japan, and Sweden. The European Union,  Asian Development Bank, the Green Climate Fund, and the International Fund for Agricultural Development were among the largest multilateral donors and channels of funding.
  • Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and South and Central Asia received approximately 50 percent of total public NbSA funding.
  • Demand exists. Seddon et al. (2019) showed that more than 60 percent of countries recognize the need to preserve ecosystems and have included NbS into their first nationally determined contributions (NDCs).
  • Likewise, a similarly high number of countries acknowledge that protecting ecosystems and enhancing biodiversity is a key goal of their adaptation planning efforts

In case of interest on how to include NbS into reporting processes, adaptation plans etc, and to see some examples of projects,  please consult the paper just included in our collection :  Public International Funding of Nature-based Solutions for Adaptation: A Landscape Assessment

 Page 27

Several efforts are attempting to develop methodologies for quantifying NbS benefits (see Box 5 Examples of Standards, Tools, Metrics, and Valuation Methodologies for Nature-based Solutions), including for adaptation. The table on the page provides recommendations for how donors and channels, as well as developing countries, can support the development of these approaches and accelerate their adoption.

Today, public capital is often still a decisive factor in determining whether an NbSA project is implemented and its benefits realized.

Publications, articles and more about on nature-based solutions ; 

📚 Word of the Week - Gender Equality

International Women’s Day is a time to reflect on progress made, to call for change and to celebrate acts of courage and determination by ordinary women, who have played an extraordinary role in the history of their countries and communities.

The world has made unprecedented advances, but no country has achieved gender equality. (Source)

  • Fifty years ago, we landed on the moon; in the last decade, we discovered new human ancestors and photographed a black hole for the first time.
  • In the meantime, legal restrictions have kept 2.7 billion women from accessing the same choice of jobs as men. Less than 25 per cent of parliamentarians were women, as of 2019. One in three women experience gender-based violence, still.
  • Women earn 23% less than men globally.
  • Women occupy only 24% of parliamentary seats worldwide
  • Globally, women are just 13 per cent of agricultural land holders.
  • Women in Northern Africa hold less than one in five paid jobs in the non-agricultural sector. The proportion of women in paid employment outside the agriculture sector has increased from 35 per cent in 1990 to 41 per cent in 2015.
  • More than 100 countries have taken action to track budget allocations for gender equality.

More than 100 countries committed to concrete actions that would advance gender equality for women and girls everywhere at a virtual high-level meeting during the UN General Assembly. This gathering –  under the theme “Accelerating the realization of gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls” – marked the 25th anniversary of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action – the most comprehensive roadmap for women and girls’ empowerment. What is the state of gender equality in the world?

Although women constitute 43 percent of the agricultural labour force in developing countries, many of them are without ownership of the lands they work in and neither do they have an authoritative voice in local governments.

  • UNICEF said the 200 million hours women and girls spend every day collecting water is a colossal waste of their valuable time. However, UN estimates are that in sub-Saharan Africa, for example, for 29 per cent of the population (37 per cent in rural areas and 14 per cent in urban areas), improved drinking water sources are 30 minutes or more away. (Source)
  • The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) has calculated how much time women and girls spend carrying water every day, which equals 200 million hours, or 8.3 million days, or 22,800 years (UNICEF, 2016).
  • In sub-Saharan Africa, one roundtrip to collect water is 33 minutes on average in rural areas and 25 minutes in urban areas. In Asia, the numbers are 21 minutes and 19 minutes respectively. However for particular countries the figures may be higher. A single trip takes longer than an hour in Mauritania, Somalia, Tunisia and Yemen. (Source)

"Land belongs to the man, the produce in it to the woman.” All over the world, women farm land to both feed their families and make a living – yet they have no say in how it is managed. This common African saying perfectly embodies women’s struggle to own and inherit property throughout history. (Source)

It is also well documented that granting women the right to control assets, most notably land, may result in more bargaining power for them within their households. The implications of this include greater agency in household and marital matters and investment in better agricultural practices. Research has found that women’s ability to own and manage land is positively associated with their access to finance. More broadly, land rights may play an important role in establishing more equal gender relations within households and boosting women’s status in society. (Source)

More resources  : 

and Further reading from UNCCD library 

📚 Word of the Week- Water scarcity 

Water scarcity can mean scarcity in availability due to physical shortage, or scarcity in access due to the failure of institutions to ensure a regular supply or due to a lack of adequate infrastructure.

Water scarcity already affects every continent. Water use has been growing globally at more than twice the rate of population increase in the last century, and an increasing number of regions are reaching the limit at which water services can be sustainably delivered, especially in arid regions. (Source)

Water covers 70% of our planet, and it is easy to think that it will always be plentiful. However, freshwater—the stuff we drink, bathe in, irrigate our farm fields with—is incredibly rare. Only 3% of the world’s water is fresh water, and two-thirds of that is tucked away in frozen glaciers or otherwise unavailable for our use.

As a result, some 1.1 billion people worldwide lack access to water, and a total of 2.7 billion find water scarce for at least one month of the year.

Inadequate sanitation is also a problem for 2.4 billion people—they are exposed to diseases, such as cholera and typhoid fever, and other water-borne illnesses. Two million people, mostly children, die each year from diarrheal diseases alone.

Many of the water systems that keep ecosystems thriving and feed a growing human population have become stressed. Rivers, lakes and aquifers are drying up or becoming too polluted to use. (Source)

  • World Water Day celebrates water and raises awareness of the 2.2 billion people living without access to safe water. SDG 6 is to ensure water and sanitation for all. Without a comprehensive understanding of water’s true, multidimensional value, we will be unable to safeguard this critical resource for the benefit of everyone.
  • Agriculture places the biggest demand on global freshwater resources and is a major contributor to environmental degradation.
  • Despite being fundamental to food security, water in food production is generally given a low value when assessed purely through the economic lens of value produced in relation to water used.
  • The United Nations global water conventions: Fostering sustainable development and peace
  • Water is complex because it is linked to almost everything in the world. But complexity should not hinder understanding: Water is a precondition for human existence and for the sustainability of the planet. See water facts
  • Around 1.2 billion people, or almost one-fifth of the world’s population, live in areas of scarcity.
  • 3.2 billion people live in agricultural areas with high to very high water shortages or scarcity, of whom 1.2 billion people – roughly one-sixth of the world’s population – live in severely water-constrained agricultural areas. (FAO, 2020)
  • Over 2 billion people live in countries experiencing high water stress. (UN, 2018)
  • It is estimated that by 2040, one in four of the world’s children under 18 – some 600 million in all – will be living in areas of extremely high water stress. (UNICEF, 2017)
  • UNICEF said the 200 million hours women and girls spend every day collecting water is a colossal waste of their valuable time. However, UN estimates are that in sub-Saharan Africa, for example, for 29 per cent of the population (37 per cent in rural areas and 14 per cent in urban areas), improved drinking water sources are 30 minutes or more away. (Source)
  • The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) has calculated how much time women and girls spend carrying water every day, which equals 200 million hours, or 8.3 million days, or 22,800 years (UNICEF, 2016).
  • In sub-Saharan Africa, one roundtrip to collect water is 33 minutes on average in rural areas and 25 minutes in urban areas. In Asia, the numbers are 21 minutes and 19 minutes respectively. However for particular countries the figures may be higher. A single trip takes longer than an hour in Mauritania, Somalia, Tunisia and Yemen. (Source)
  • 700 million people worldwide could be displaced by intense water scarcity by 2030. (Global Water Institute, 2013)
  • About 4 billion people, representing nearly two-thirds of the world population, experience severe water scarcity during at least one month of the year (Mekonnen and Hoekstra, 2016)
  • With the existing climate change scenario, by 2030, water scarcity in some arid and semi-arid places will displace between 24 million and 700 million people. (UN, 2009).
  • A third of the world’s biggest groundwater systems are already in distress (Richey et al., 2015).
  • Nearly half the global population are already living in potential waterscarce areas at least one month per year and this could increase to some 4.8–5.7 billion in 2050. About 73% of the affected people live in Asia (69% by 2050) (Burek et al., 2016). ( Source:Factsheet on Water scarcity)

Further reading from UNCCD library water security ;  water footprint  ; water stress  ; water harvesting 

Land restoration is a vital ally to World Water Day. As we celebrate today, let’s remember that we must value water and land equally as part of the same challenge – to build a better, more equal, healthier planet post COVID-19. 

📚 Word of the Week - Urban development

Coalition for Urban Transitions releases a new report ‘Seizing the Urban Opportunity’, which provides insights from six emerging economies on how national governments can recover from COVID-19, tackle the climate crisis and secure shared prosperity through cities. Launching as a call to action for national governments ahead of COP26 in Glasgow, it builds on the Coalition’s flagship 2019 report: Climate Emergency, Urban Opportunity.

National governments can spur COVID-19 recovery, achieve shared prosperity and drive climate action through national policies and targeted investments to decarbonise cities and make them more resilient. This report shows the power of urban transformation and the many ways to achieve it by looking up close at six major emerging economies: China, India, Indonesia, Brazil, Mexico and South Africa.

Cities are vital to solving the triple challenges of COVID-19 recovery, sustainable and inclusive development, and climate change; but they need national leadership and support to realise their potential.

This new report builds on previous research from our 2019 flagship report, Climate Emergency, Urban Opportunity, which found that national governments hold the key to urban transformations as they drive or control key policy realms and are responsible for mobilising resources at the scale needed.

This is a pivotal time for national governments, as the choices they make amid the COVID crisis can put their countries on track for a more prosperous and resilient future, or accelerate the climate emergency.

By 2030, investment in urban infrastructure must be directed towards zero-carbon, resilient, and inclusive development if cities are to reach their potential for delivering the emission reductions needed for a well below 2°C climate scenario. This report seeks to build momentum for enhanced climate ambition by national governments and other actors ahead of COP26 in Glasgow.

Recognising that developing and emerging economies face particularly complex challenges exacerbated by the pandemic, the report focuses on six key countries: China, India, Indonesia, Brazil, Mexico, and South Africa. Together, they produce about a third of global GDP and 41% of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel use.

They are also home to 42% of the world’s urban population. The extent to these six major emerging economies can unleash the power of cities to catalyse sustainable, inclusive and resilient growth is therefore critical not only for their future trajectory, but for the whole planet.

Across the six countries studied, implementation of the report’s solutions, using currently available measures, could collectively support:

Climate benefits, including cutting annual emissions from key urban sectors (buildings, transport, materials use and waste) by 87–96% by 2050 beyond their initial NDC commitments under the Paris Agreement. Economic benefits including economic returns with a net present value of over $12 trillion by 2050, based on energy and material cost savings alone. Development benefits including potentially supporting millions of new jobs in 2030: 15.2 million in China, 8.2 million in India, 2.3 million in Indonesia, 4.5 million in Brazil, 650,000 in South Africa, and 500,000 in Mexico.

The report is a collaborative effort, created in consultation with experts and policymakers in the six focus countries, with additional input from more than 36 organisations across five continents.

National governments can reap $12 trillion in returns, create millions of new jobs, reduce emissions through low-carbon investments in cities

The report finds that these solutions could collectively support significant economic and development benefits, and cut annual emissions from key urban sectors by 87–96% by 2050 beyond their initial NDC commitments under the Paris Agreement.

Facts and figures:

  • Urban areas produce 80% of global GDP, and as of 2020, were home to about 56% of humankind.
  • Recognising that developing and emerging economies face particularly complex challenges exacerbated by the pandemic, Seizing the Urban Opportunity focuses on:
  • Six major emerging economies: China, India, Indonesia, Brazil, Mexico, and South Africa.

These countries represent about :

  • 1/3 of global GDP,
  • 42% of the world’s urban population, and
  • 41% of global fossil fuel emissions.
    • The report finds that the six countries could collectively cut emissions by up to 96% from key urban sectors (buildings, transport, materials use, and waste) by 2050, lead to $12 trillion in economic returns based on cost savings alone and deliver millions of new jobs

Further reading on urban related issues from UNCCD Library

📚 Fact of the Month - February 2021 - It is essential to integrate land tenure security into national strategies in order to achieve LDN  

Access to land, security of tenure and land management all have significant implications for livelihood, development, land degradation reduction, and investments in Sustainable Land Management (SLM); land tenure security is, moreover, central to agricultural production and sustainable use of natural resources. These are all crucial elements to consider in view of the challenges faced by humanity today, which include climate change, the provision of adequate and equitable housing, food security, disaster risk reduction, and peace and security.(Source)

Responsible land governance is a fundamental component of sustainable land management and is important to addressing desertification/land degradation and drought (Source)

One of the causal linkages between land tenure and land degradation is the different forms and degrees of how securely land is held by the legitimate tenure rights bearer (owner, occupant, renter or user). While a diverse set of variables operate to drive land resources toward conservation, sustainable management or degradation, the contribution of tenure security is, broadly, that those who hold land securely are able and motivated to invest in resource conservation practices with a view to long-term health and productivity, without fear that their land can be unjustly taken or encroached upon. (Source)

Land tenure security can lead to good land stewardship if all facets of the enabling environment are addressed together. The implementation of UNCCD decision 26/COP.14 could provide an opportunity to accelerate the implementation of the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security, with the aim of optimizing the use of land for the benefit of all, while ensuring the achievement of LDN. (Source)

The UNCCD SPI programme for 2018–2019 highlights the cooperation with the United Nations Human Settlements Programme in engaging the Global Land Indicators Initiative to harmonize land indicators in the measurement of tenure security as part of the indicators used for measuring progress towards LDN. ICCD/COP(14)/CST/4 (Source)

UNCCD SPI has produced a technical paper on “Creating an Enabling Environment for LDN and its Potential Contribution to Enhancing Well-being, Livelihoods and the Environment”, which suggests that in many cases LDN will require improved land governance. 

The international community has recognized the important role played by tenure security in sustainable economic growth and included it in eight SDG targets and twelve SDG indicators.

Tenure security directly impacts investment, credit availability, market access, land values, poverty rates and agricultural productivity – all of which underpin economic growth. Economic growth depends on secure land tenure. Tenure security gives individuals, families, communities and companies the confidence to invest in land resources. ( Source)  

📚 Word of the Week - Drought 

Over 15 per cent of natural disaster damages and losses are caused by drought. Droughts account for 85.8% of livestock losses and drought is the most lethal natural hazard to livestock (FAO, 2015). The distribution of drought-related losses show high relative losses in Sub-Saharan Africa but Central and South America, southern Europe, the Middle East and southern Australia are also at high risk (Natural Disaster Hotspots: A Global Risk Analysis, 2005).

  • With the anticipated pressures on water resources and with more intense and severe droughts predicted, a paradigm shift is needed. Poorly coordinated “crisis management” in the face of drought will no longer suffice (Managing drought risk in a changing climate: The role of national drought policy, weather and climate extremes, 2014). A well-planned approach that focuses on reducing the impacts of drought is needed now.
  • The adoption of national drought policies that are focused on risk reduction and which are complemented by drought mitigation plans at various levels of government will have significant ripple effects across key sectors.
  • The adoption of these policies supports the implementation of Sustainable Development Goal target 6 – “ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all” – by promoting integrated water resources management. The vulnerability to future drought episodes can be significantly reduced and the coping capacity of communities, even entire nations, can be improved.
  • UNCCD has developed a Drought Toolbox Providing drought stakeholders with easy access to resources to support action on drought preparedness with the aim to boost the resilience of people and ecosystems.The drought toolbox collates a large number of tools organized in 3 modules.
  1. Drought Monitoring and Early Warning.
  2. Drought Vulnerability and Risk Assessment.
  3. Drought Risk Mitigation Measures.

On the last day of CRIC 19, delegates finalized discussions on the interim report of the Intergovernmental Working Group (IWG) on drought. In her response, Gunilla Björklund, IWG Chair, thanked delegates for providing concrete suggestions, including a proposal to establish an interagency mechanism on drought under the UN Environmental Management Group, and calls for the report to analyze links between drought, and land and soil degradation. Highlighting suggestions to make a stronger economic case for drought mitigation, she stated that the IWG will benefit from an ongoing partnership of the World Meteorological Organization, the Global Water Partnership and the World Bank addressing the economics of drought preparedeness. (Source

Further reading from UNCCD Library:  drought  ; drought policy ; 

📚 Word of the Week - Land tenure

Positioning land tenure within LDN: framework, implementation model and monitoring. In order to position tenure rights within the LDN approach, this article first proposes how land tenure, viewed as sets of tools, can be specifically integrated into the LDN framework, implementation model , and monitoring approach.

  • The land tenure additions to these schematics in Figures 1 - 3 are made by the present article with regard to how they contribute to the avoidance of land degradation, and for the recovery of degraded areas – the two overarching priorities for LDN.
  • While certainly the relationships between land tenure and LDN, and between land tenure security and land degradation are quite complex, the point of the paper is to examine broadly how land tenure concepts, tools, and approaches can be inserted into the LDN framework, as opposed to attempting an exhaustive review of all the possible complexities.io of particular concern. Climate change and land degradation are closely associated in many parts of the world.

The intent of this article is to introduce and contribute to the establishment and use of land tenure within the LDN approach. An important finding of this paper is that the robustness of the LDN framework allows for a detailed “good fit” of land tenure as tools into the framework. In this regard, land tenure can identify in two broad sets of tools that align with the LDN priorities. This approach aligns resources, including the eight design principles of institutions that have shown to be relevant to successful management of common pool and non-common pool resources.

In particular, the principles of clearly defined boundaries, the participation of individuals and communities affected by operational rules in rule definition and modification, and the need to derive conflict resolution and monitoring mechanisms for finite resources such as land.

While additional work is needed in order to more thoroughly integrate into the LDN approach the important land tenure research, policy, and practice that has taken place in recent decades, it is the intent of this article to start this process so as to make progress toward the sustainable development goal of land degradation neutrality by the 2030 target date. (Source)Land tenure in support of land degradation neutrality

Further reading  and resources from UNCCD Library:

📚 Word of the Week - Wetlands

A wetland is a place where the land is covered by water, either salt, fresh or somewhere in between. Marshes and ponds, the edge of a lake or ocean, the delta at the mouth of a river, low-lying areas that frequently flood—all of these are wetlands.

Arid wetlands are vital water stores in otherwise uninhabitable landscapes. They help strengthen the capacity of local people to survive droughts and fight desertification. A changing climate and lower river flows due to upstream diversions is putting these wetlands and the communities they support at risk. We improve resilience to disasters by protecting and rehabilitating the wetland ecosystems on which people depend.(Source)

Rivers and wetlands are critically important life-support systems running through the Sahelian drylands. They provide food, water supplies and fertile soils for tens of millions of people. The loss of wetlands results in increased water scarcity, hunger and instability. We seek to safeguard seasonal water flows that nourish the floodplains and local communities.(Source)

Wetlands are often viewed as wasteland: places to be drained and converted for development and other land uses. Since 1900 more than 64% of wetlands have been lost through drainage and conversion, and much of the rest have been degraded. Nature that depends on freshwater is in a major decline. As wetlands are lost, people are deprived of their well-being too. As the demand for water, land and food increases and climate change intensifies, wetlands are coming under pressure. (Source)

World Wetlands Day marks the date of adoption of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, the only multilateral environmental agreement to date that focuses solely on the conservation and wise use of wetlands, of which Wetlands International plays an instrumental role. This year is the Convention’s 50th anniversary. (Source)

The destruction of wetlands is a concern because they are some of the most productive habitats on the planet. They often support high concentrations of animals—including mammals, birds, fish and invertebrates—and serve as nurseries for many of these species. Wetlands also support the cultivation of rice, a staple in the diet of half the world’s population. And they provide a range of ecosystem services that benefit humanity, including water filtration, storm protection, flood control and recreation.(Source)

Without wetlands, cities have to spend more money to treat water for their citizens, floods are more devastating to nearby communities, storm surges from hurricanes can penetrate farther inland, animals are displaced or die out, and food supplies are disrupted, along with livelihoods. WWF, governments and other organizations have pursued efforts to conserve and protect wetlands through the Ramsar Convention, the only international treaty devoted to a single ecosystem type. More than 476,000 acres of wetland have been protected through this treaty, saving them and their services for future generations (Source)

Wetlands are the world’s water filters. They trap pollutants such as phosphorus and heavy metals in their soils, transform dissolved nitrogen into nitrogen gas, and break down suspended solids to neutralize harmful bacteria. New York City found that it could save $3-8 billion in new wastewater treatment plants by purchasing and preserving $1.5 billion in land around its upstate reservoirs. (Source)

Wetlands are often underappreciated because they are viewed as being more valuable for their water and undeveloped land than the ecosystem services they provide. They are often drained to make room for agriculture or human settlements. And any wetlands nearby left untouched may lose their own water to this development.(Source)

Climate change brings a variety of alterations to patterns of water and climate. In some places, rising sea levels are swamping shallow wetlands and drowning some species of mangrove trees. In others, droughts are destroying estuaries, floodplains and marshes.(Source)

Dams alter the natural flow of water through a landscape. There are possibilities for building dams or locating them in more sustainable ways that limit impact on existing ecosystems, but many have been very destructive to wetlands.(Source)

Further reading from UNCCD library 

📚 Word of the Week -  Arable lands

Arable land is defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land that is temporarily fallow;  Arable land (% of land area)

Land degradation is a global environmental issue that affects the world’s arable lands on a large scale, thus threatening global food production systems. (Source)

With a spatial footprint of ~40% of global arable areas, this type of process is by far the dominant degradation-inducing pressure in these anthropogenic systems. The authors also found that soil erosion is another important vector of uni-degradation, which acts alone in ~20% of worldwide arable landscapes.(Source)

Also, the latest findings showed that African countries are, percentagewise, the most heavily affected by the various pathways of arable land degradation. At the same time, the authors found that the two processes act simultaneously on an additional ~7% of arable areas and, as such, are the main pathways of multi-degradation (the incidence/convergence of two or more degradation processes) in arable lands worldwide. (Source)

Loss of World’s Arable Land Threat to ‘Everything We Eat, Drink, Breathe’, Speaker Says, as Second Committee Takes Up Sustainable Development. UNCCD ES IbrahimThiaw stressing that land is the basis for human health and livelihood. “Simply put, land feeds us all,” he said, noting the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the Intergovernmental Science‑Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services report that 25 per cent of the world’s land has been rendered unusable, “threatening everything we eat, drink and breathe”.In the face of that daunting statistic, many speakers addressed the issue as an existential threat that forestalls development. (Source)

Science tells us that desertification, land degradation and drought are real threats to humanity, with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the Intergovernmental Science‑Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services reporting that 25 per cent of the world’s land has been rendered unusable, “threatening everything we eat, drink and breathe”.(Source)

While unsustainable land use practices are responsible for nearly a quarter of greenhouse gas emissions, he noted that demand for agricultural products is predicted to increase by 50 per cent by 2050.  He stressed that Asia and Africa will soon have the highest number of people vulnerable to increased desertification.  Land degradation costs 10 per cent of the world’s annual gross domestic product (GDP), costing Central Asia alone an estimated $6 billion, with drought affecting every climatic region including around 70 countries.  Citing impacts in Jamaica, Peru and across the Sahel, he said by 2050, the combination of land degradation and climate change may force 50 to 700 million people to migrate.(Source)

However, land is part of the solution, as nature‑based solutions can provide over one‑third of climate mitigation needed between now and 2030 to stabilize warming to below 2°C.  Around 2 billion hectares of land, twice the size of China, now degraded, can be restored, while halting and reversing current destructive trends could generate up to $1.4 trillion in annual economic benefits. (Source)

Agricultural land is defined as the land area that is either arable, under permanent crops, or under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land under temporary crops such as cereals, temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as orchards and vineyards. This category excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops. This indicator is presented as a total and per type of agricultural land and is measured in hectares and in percentage. Other agro-environmental indicators include Organic farmland and Transgenic cropland. (Source)

Ten million hectares of arable land worldwide are 'lost' every year. Less and less fertile and healthy soil. About ten million hectares of arable land are lost around the globe every year, an area equivalent to nearly 14 million football fields. One quarter of the world's soils already has significantly less humus and nutrients than 25 years ago and can no longer be used as cropland. The main reasons: land reclamation by deforestation, slash and burn practices, ploughing up of lands, and agricultural practices which are not adapted to the special conditions of its location. "Fertile and healthy soils are a basic requirement to secure our food supply. The degradation of soil is the cause of hunger and malnutrition – and hence conflicts and migration"

Further reading from UNCCD library 

📚 Fact of the Month January 2021 - African greening initiative , the Great Green Wall receives $14 billion   

The Great Green Wall for the Sahel and Sahara, an initiative to combat desertification in the vast region, received a pledge of more than $14.2 billion in new funding over the next 10 years, to restore degrading land, protect biodiversity and strengthen resilience. 

According to the UN Convention on Combating Desertification Secretariat (UNCCD), overall, about $33 billion needed by the initiative to achieve its ambitious targets to restore 100 million hectares of degraded land, the soil capture of around 250 million tons of atmospheric carbon, and creation of some 10 million green jobs for communities, by 2030. 

Mohamed Cheikh El-Ghazouani, President of Mauritania and the Chair of Conference of Heads of State and Government of the Pan African Agency for the Green Great Wall, welcomed the announcement.  

“The mobilization of this additional funding through an innovative approach will certainly contribute to the achievement of the Great Green Wall goals”, he said. 

Since its inception in 2007, the country-led Great Green Wall programme has planted billions of trees and supported tens of thousands of local households. Its path snakes along the southern margin of Africa’s Sahara Desert running from the Atlantic coast to the Red Sea. (Source)

Further reading from UNCCD library 

📚 Word of the Week - Investment opportunities 

World Bank Plans to Invest over $5 Billion in Drylands in Africa. The World Bank plans to invest over $5 billion over the next five years to help restore degraded landscapes, improve agriculture productivity, and promote livelihoods across 11 African countries on a swathe of land stretching from Senegal to Djibouti.

World Bank Group President David Malpass announced the investment at the One Planet Summit, a high-level meeting co-hosted with France and the United Nations that is focused on addressing climate change and biodiversity loss.

“This investment, which comes at a crucial time, will help improve livelihoods as countries recover from COVID-19 while also dealing with the impact of both biodiversity loss and climate change on their people and economies,” said Malpass.

The more than $5 billion in financing will support agriculture, biodiversity, community development, food security, landscape restoration, job creation, resilient infrastructure, rural mobility, and access to renewable energy across 11 countries of the Sahel, Lake Chad and Horn of Africa. Many of these efforts are in line with the Great Green Wall initiative. This builds on World Bank landscape investments in these countries over the past eight years that reached more than 19 million people and placed 1.6 million hectares under sustainable land management.(Source)

The Director-General said FAO currently has a project portfolio of $238 million directly supporting the 5 Pillars of the Great Green Wall Accelerator and a total project portfolio of over $1.15 billion supporting 11 Great Green Wall countries. (Source)

More on investment opportunities from UNCCD Library:

investment opportunities ; land investment ; private investments ; innovative finance; LDN Fund

📚 Word of the Week- One health 

The One Health movement, (WHO) which has come to prominence in the last decade, advocates greater cross-sectoral collaboration and communication across the human-animal-environment interface. There has been a long-standing recognition that population health is intrinsically linked to both animal and environmental health, and that issues such as population growth, changes in climate and land use, and the movement of animals and people, have a huge impact on the collective health of our world today.

But the One Health concept takes this much further. By designing and implementing programmes, policies, legislation and multidisciplinary research, it seeks to deliver the best possible public health outcomes on a global scale. This has become increasingly urgent, as many of these changes have occurred in our very recent history: through the prevalence of deforestation and intensive farming, with the increase in forced migration due to climate change, or simply through modern methods of travel and trade (which allow diseases to spread quickly across the globe).

One Health is a “collaborative, multisectoral, and transdisciplinary approach—working at the local, regional, national, and global levels—with the goal of achieving optimal health outcomes by recognising the interconnection between people, animals, plants, and their shared environment”[1]. This synergistic concept has enormous potential to not only impact some of the biggest public health challenges of our time, from antimicrobial resistance, pandemic preparedness, to food safety and biosecurity – but also wider planetary health. 

Calvin Schwabe, another veterinarian trained in public health, coined the term One Medicine in a veterinary medical textbook in 1964, which reflects the similarities between animal and human medicine and stresses the importance of collaboration between veterinarians and physicians to help solve global health problems. World Health Summit 2020( Source

"The lesson is clear: a strong health system is a resilient health system. Health systems and preparedness are not only an investment in the future, they are the foundation of our response today." NEXT: October 24-26, 2021 World Health Summit Berlin, Germany & Digital

Further reading from UNCCD Library: Healthy land for healthy people ; health impacts; environmental problems and human health; zoonotic diseases ; The Implications of desertification, land degradation, drought, sand and dust storms on human health (research 1994-2020)

📚 Word of the Week- Migration

It is important to acknowledge that existing migration dynamics are modified or exacerbated by environmental degradation, rather than uniquely caused by it. If no urgent actions are taken to protect, restore and rehabilitate vital land resources, desertification, land degradation, and drought (DLDD) will increase poverty and inequality, leaving many with few other options than to embark on perilous out-migration journeys.

Land is the central component upon which the livelihoods of humanity rely. Our food, energy, and employments are associated with, and dependent on, its quality and well-being.

There is a risk that desertification, land degradation and drought (DLDD) disproportionally contribute to increased poverty, unemployment and inequality; and lead to the forced migration of those already most marginalized and vulnerable. Decisive action is therefore required to protect and restore vital land resources.

In addition, how environmental and migration policies are developed and enacted today will greatly influence the impacts of DLDD on migration tomorrow.

Migration has long been one of the most important livelihood strategies available to households to cope with environmental change and relieve population pressure from drylands unable to cope with additional stress. Due to the consideration that migration may be motivated by better employment opportunities, ensuring sustainable land management and ecosystem restoration compatible with the creation of decent and attractive employment opportunities is critical in order to reduce and avoid DLDD-related forced migration. 

Nearly 25 million people were displaced in 2019 because of natural disasters, compared with approximately 8.6 million displaced by conflict and violence. The figures for those displaced due to disaster vary each year but have steadily trumped the number forced to flee because of violence since 2008. Around the world, the number of people displaced within their own countries rose by almost 25% in 2019.

“What we see in those instances where we have some insights is that people stay within as close by as possible usually or move into the next urban area. So open urban centers are really the magnet, in a sense, for most of this type of displacement, so people can seek other opportunities for livelihoods, etc.,” said Bina Desai, head of programs at IDMC. (Source)https://www.devex.com/news/climate-migration-keeps-growing-but-doesn-t-look-as-you-might-expect-99214?

Further reading from UNCCD Library :

📚 Word of the Week- Sand and Dust Storms (SDS)

Sand and dust storms (SDS), also known as sirocco, haboob, yellow dust, white storms, and the harmattan, are a natural phenomenon linked with land and water management and climate change. They are a combination of different hazards, such as sand, dust and wind. The fluctuation in their intensity, magnitude or interaction with each other is what can make them unpredictable and dangerous. 

  • Some 151 UNCCD country Parties – or 77 per cent – are affected directly by SDS and 45 country Parties (or 23 per cent) are classified as SDS source areas.
  • Most locations are in the low-latitude drylands, but dust sources can develop in almost any environment, often through human influence. Important potential drivers of future wind erosion and SDS occurrence include desertification, land degradation and climate change, high latitudes, industrial activities, especially due to unsustainable land and water management,  more extreme wind events, greater aridity in some areas, and greater drought frequency, severity and duration. 
  • SDS have significant socio-economic impacts on human health, agriculture, industry, transportation, water and air quality.
  • For instance, dust can cause damage to lungs and worsen the symptoms of bronchitis and respiratory diseases such as asthma.
  • Globally, 334 million people and 14 per cent of world’s children experience asthmatic symptoms.
  • In addition, dust storms can transport pathogens such as meningitis and valley fever. (Source) (Source)

Further reading on Sand and Dust Storms (SDS) from UNCCD Library:

📚 Fact of the Month September 2020 -The Great Green Wall is more than just an environmental project  

The Great Green Wall is more than just an environmental project that is intended to restore 100 million hectares of fertile lands in the Sahel, sequester 250 million tons of carbon and create 10 million green jobs.

"It's not just about planting trees in the Sahel region, but also about tackling issues such as climate change, drought, famine, conflict, migration and land degradation.

Africa's "great green wall" of vegetation should run 7,700 kilometers (4831 miles) across the Sahara and Sahel from Senegal to Djibouti. This vast stretch of trees is meant to reverse land degradation and combat poverty by creating jobs and boosting food security.

The Great Green Wall is a pan-African initiative to restore and sustainably manage land in the Sahel- Saharan region in order to address both land degradation and poverty. It was first envisioned in 2005 The African Union (AU) launched the initiative in 2007 under the name the Great Green Wall.

On 17 June 2010 the 11 Sahel states south of the Sahara created the Pan-African Agency of the GGW to coordinate its implementation and support resources mobilization

The Great Green Wall initiative promises to boost food security and resilience to climate change, create thousands of jobs for the communities along the path, especially women and young people, and address urgent threats to the people of this region such as drought, famine, conflict and migration.

Major progress has already been made in restoring the fertility of Sahelian lands, according to the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), one of the key partners in the initiative. Examples include:

  • Ethiopia: 15 million hectares of degraded land restored. Land tenure security improved.
  • Senegal: 11.4 million trees planted. 25,000 hectares of degraded land restored.
  • Nigeria: 5 million hectares of degraded land restored. 20,000 jobs created.
  • Sudan: 2,000 hectares of land restored.
  • Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger: about 120 communities involved; a green belt created over more than 2,500 hectares of degraded and drylands; more than 2 million seeds and seedlings planted from fifty native species of trees.

The initiators emphasize that the Great Green Wall makes a vital contribution to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and that it is a global symbol for humanity overcoming its biggest threat: the rapidly degrading environment.

On its website, the initiative states: “It shows that if we can work with nature, even in challenging places like the Sahel, we can overcome adversity, and build a better world for generations to come.“

Further reading: compilation prepared by UNCCD Library 

📚 Word of the Week- Land restoration

Land restoration is the process of regaining ecological functionality of degraded land, thus reinstalling ecosystem goods and services. To be effective and sustainable, land restoration should be approached at the landscape scale, which is referred to as landscape restoration.

Despite increasing rates of land degradation, it is possible to reduce and even reverse these processes through restoration and improved land management to strengthen communities’ resilience to climate change, reduce Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions and ensure food security for generations to come (FAO 2019; IPCC 2019). Reducing and reversing land degradation can be achieved through a number of initiatives, including the achievement of UN SDGs, the Rio Conventions and the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration (2021 -2030).

One of the key objectives of the UNCCD is to reach Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN) by 2030, a target also included in the SDG 15. LDN aims to balance land degradation with land restoration, to eventually maintain or even increase ecosystem functions and services as well as food security from land resources.

Progress towards the target of restoring 15 per cent of degraded ecosystems by 2020 is limited. Nevertheless, ambitious restoration programmes are under way or proposed in many regions, with the potential to deliver significant gains in ecosystem resilience and preservation of carbon stocks. The target has not been achieved (medium confidence). (Source GBO5)

Restoring 160 million hectares of degraded agricultural land could boost smallholder farmers’ incomes in developing countries by $35-40 billion per year while providing additional food for nearly 200 million people. Forest restoration can also help reduce carbon emissions while boosting rural livelihoods and jobs, including in high-income countries.(Source)

As the climate crisis worsens, 65% of Africa’s land is affected by degradation. Should no action be taken, this would lead to an estimated loss of PPP USD 4.6 trillion over 15 years up to 2030. Rural small and medium enterprises working on sustainable agriculture and forestry are crucial to land restoration and the rural economy.

However, because these enterprises are too small for commercial banks and too large for microfinance, they have relatively few sources of finance available to them. Consequently, they frequently lack the capital needed to grow their businesses and serve more farmers. These rural communities are already highly vulnerable to climate change and food insecurity, the latter being exacerbated by the current COVID-19 crisis.

The Rural Prosperity Bond (RPB) will provide loans to SMEs working in land restoration in Africa, South Asia and Latin America. (Source)

Publications, articles and more about land restoration, GGW  from UNCCD Library

📚 Word of the Week- Land Degradation Neutrality( LDN)

A state whereby the amount and quality of land resources necessary to support ecosystem functions and services and enhance food security remain stable or increase within specified temporal and spatial scales and ecosystems (decision 3/COP.12, UNCCD, 2015a). Decision 3/COP. 12 Integration of the Sustainable Development Goals and targets into the implementation of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification and the Intergovernmental Working Group report on land degradation neutrality.

The LDN concept has been developed to encourage implementation of an optimal mix of measures designed to avoid, reduce and/or reverse land degradation in order to achieve a state of no net loss of healthy and productive land. LDN aims to balance anticipated losses in land-based natural capital and associated ecosystem functions and services with measures that produce alternative gains through approaches such as land restoration and sustainable land management.

LDN is a simple idea and a powerful tool. It means securing enough healthy and productive natural resources by avoiding degradation whenever possible and restoring land that has already been degraded. At its core are better land management practices and better land use planning that will improve economic, social and ecological sustainability for present and future generations.

Numerous direct links exist between LDN and Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), such as eradicating poverty, ensuring food security, protecting the environment and using natural resources sustainably. LDN serves as a catalyst in achieving these goals.

Publications, articles and more about Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN) from UNCCD Library

📚 Word of the Week- Food security

“Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life”. (World Food Summit, 1996)

“We believe in a world where healthy, sustainable and inclusive food systems, allow people and planet to thrive. It is a world without poverty or hunger, a world of inclusive growth, environmental sustainability, and social justice. It is a resilient world where no one is left behind.” Agnes Kalibata, Special Envoy for the 2021 Food Systems Summit

Despite its multifaceted nature, the debate surrounding food security over the last few decades has largely focused on production and on the challenges facing the agricultural system. Food security has also been directly associated with hunger, poverty and humanitarian aspects. Although agriculture and fisheries are fundamental and essential components of the food system, it is misguided to address the future of food security without looking at the system’s many other determinants. The time has come to overcome this conventional approach and to look systemically at food security and its complex nature (Source)

There is more than enough food in the world to feed our population of 7.8 billion people. But, today, more than 820 million people are hungry. And some 144 million children under the age of 5 are stunted – more than one in five children worldwide. Our food systems are failing, and the Covid-19 pandemic is making things worse. Unless immediate action is taken, it is increasingly clear that there is an impending global food emergency that could have long term impacts on hundreds of millions of children and adults. This year, some 49 million extra people may fall into extreme poverty due to the COVID-19 crisis the Secretary-General stresses in his latest Policy Brief on Food Security. Access it here

DID YOU KNOW:

The Committee on World Food Security (CFS) is the foremost inclusive international and intergovernmental platform for all stakeholders to work together to ensure food security and nutrition for all.Using a multi-stakeholder, inclusive approach, CFS develops and endorses policy recommendations and guidance on a wide range of food security and nutrition topics.  These are developed starting from scientific and evidence-based reports produced by the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition (HLPE) and/or through work supported technically by The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), World Food Programme (WFP) and representatives of the CFS Advisory Group. CFS holds an annual Plenary session every October in FAO, Rome.

Responsible investment in agriculture and food systems is essential for enhancing food security and nutrition and supporting the progressive realization of the right to adequate food in the context of national food security. (Source)

In 2021, UN Secretary-General António Guterres will convene a Food Systems Summit to raise global awareness and land global commitments and actions that transform food systems to resolve not only hunger, but to reduce diet-related disease and heal the planet. The Secretary General is calling for collective action of all citizens to radically change the way we produce, process, and consume food.

Food is a life force for our families, cultures, and our communities. But profound changes in the way food is grown, processed, distributed, consumed, and wasted over the last several decades has led to increasing threats to a future of food that is sustainable, equitable, and secure. Food interconnects with all aspects of our lives: Water • Land • Energy • Culture • Jobs • Technology • Economies • Policies • Families.

Based on research using a machine-learning tool to analyze over 500,000 published reports and articles and economic modelling, the research project finds that an additional USD 14 billion per year until 2030 is needed to achieve SDG 2.
The researchers propose ten interventions organized around three focus areas: On the farm, Food on the move, and Empower the excluded. (Source)

Publications, articles and more about food security from UNCCD Library

📚 Word of the Week-Youth employment

Today’s young people are the most educated generation ever. Nevertheless, they encounter difficulties in entering and remaining in the labour market. For too many of them, the transition to work is problematic. Opportunities for young people to find a job are bound to the general state of the economy and overall employment situation in a country. However, they are also influenced by the education and skills young people possess, the relevance of these skills for the labour market and the possibilities available to youth to apply and use these skills. 

Young women and men are invaluable assets that no country can afford to waste. They bring energy, talent and creativity to the world of work together with new skills and the motivation that enable companies to grow, innovate and prosper. But today’s youth face important challenges in the labour market. The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted every aspect of our lives. Even before the onset of the crisis, the social and economic integration of young people was an ongoing challenge. Now, unless urgent action is taken, young people are likely to suffer severe and long-lasting impacts from the pandemic.

The youth employment challenge is enormous. But it is not insurmountable. We have a vision of a world where young women and men everywhere can earn a fair income while working in conditions of security, dignity and equality. Getting young people into decent jobs is not just essential for their future, but for the future of our local communities, our countries and our global society. Decent jobs for youth are also essential to realizing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

Investing in youth employment requires a collaborative approach to prioritizing job creation while helping youth to overcome specific disadvantages, such as skills mismatch and discrimination.

COVID-19 has shown us just how fragile and globalised our economies and societies are. Poverty and income inequality will severely limit opportunities for youth employment in the post-COVID world. Investing in young people for decent and sustainable jobs must be put at the forefront of policy action so we can build resilient nations with equal, inclusive and sustainable economies and societies that respect nature and care for future generations.

DID YOU KNOW:

  • Today there are 1.8 billion people in the world between the ages of 15 and 35 — a quarter of the global population. This is largest generation of youth and young people the world has ever known. Young adults are the backbone of every society, providing energy, ideas and investment potential.(Source)
  • The global recession is expected to result in the loss of five to 25 million jobs, and it will be young adults and young people that are most vulnerable to unemployment. Across the world, young working people will be the first to lose their jobs, or will have to resort to lower quality, less paid, insecure or unsafe jobs (Source)
  • Before the pandemic, EU youth unemployment (15-24) was 14.9%, down from its peak of 24.4% in 2013. In July 2020, it rose to 17%. The European Commission’s summer 2020 economic forecast predicts that the EU economy will shrink 8.3% in 2020, the deepest recession in the EU's history. To offset the impact on young people, the Commission proposed a new initiative called Youth Employment Support in July 2020.
  • Global youth unemployment rate is three times higher than for adults (OECD, 2018 data). At 13.6 %, with considerable regional variation, 9% in Northern America and sub-Saharan Africa to 30% in Northern Africa, these young adults and other young adults will be hardest hit by the current global recession. And the young women that make up over half of the youth unemployed, will find it harder than ever to close the gender gap.(Source)
  • Of the 38.1 per cent estimated total working poor in sub-Saharan Africa, young people account for 23.5 per cent. (Source)
  • Youth are Africa’s greatest asset. Africa’s youth population is rapidly growing and expected to double to over 830million by 2050. If properly harnessed, this increase in the working age population could support increased productivity and stronger, more inclusive economic growth across the continent. But today, the majority of youth in Africa do not have stable economic opportunities. Of Africa’s nearly 420 million youth aged 15-35, one-third are unemployed and discouraged, another third are vulnerably employed, and only one in six is in wage employment. Youth face roughly double the unemployment rate of adults, with significant variation by country. (Source)
  • The vision of the Jobs for Youth in Africa Strategy 2016 2025 is to create 25million jobs and reach over 50million Africans by driving inclusive growth across the continent and equipping youth to realize their full economic potential. Overall, this strategy is anchored in the overall vision of Improving Quality of Life for All Africans. (Source)
  • Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is the world’s youngest continent, with 70 per cent of its rapidly increasing population below the age of 30. Every year, 25 million young people in Africa enter the labour market, more than half of them (14 million) in rural areas. By the year 2030, 320 million new jobs will need to be created, which makes Rural Youth Employment (RYE) one of the most pressing and challenging topics (Source)
  • Creating opportunities for rural youth is more urgent than ever. Countries have an urgent choice to make: create employment opportunities, especially in rural areas, and reap the demographic dividends of a young vibrant workforce or face the social unrest and political instability that high rates of youth unemployment may bring about. This call for proposals is to select a recipient or consortium of recipients to receive a four-year IFAD grant financing to implement the project: Rural youth employment opportunities: Support to integrated agribusiness hubs initiative, for a total amount of up to US$3.5 million.(Source)

Publications, articles and more about youth employment opportunities, youth and agriculture from UNCCD Library:

📚 Fact of the Month October 2020 - One third of the food grown is lost or wasted every year.

One third of the food grown is lost or wasted every year. This amounts to a staggering 1.3 billion tons of food, which would be enough to feed 2 billion people in the world, and negatively affects climate change, poverty and trade.

About 931 million tons of food — or 17 per cent of all food available to consumers in 2019 and roughly equal to 23 million fully loaded 40-ton trucks bumper-to-bumper, enough to circle the Earth seven times — were trashed by households, retailers, restaurants and other food services, a Food Waste Index Report 2021 says

In turn, this has an important impact on the right to adequate food of broad sectors of the population.

The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly disrupted our dynamics. In addition to the damage it has caused to daily life, it has exposed these systemic problems and the need for urgent changes in the way we manage the planet and its fruits, including food loss and waste.

Although disruptions to the food supply chain are – for now – relatively minor overall, measures imposed by States to prevent the spread of the novel coronavirus have generated obstacles typical of distant times: from cultivation and harvesting, through transport and storage, up to consumption.

Mobility restrictions (closure of roads and borders, and delays due to mandatory controls) prevent or delay the transport and distribution of goods, resulting in agricultural products that spoil or are not sold due to their low quality. Changes in demand reduce the income of producers, especially small farmers or those living in remote rural areas.

On the consumer side, families with lower purchasing power find it even more costly to access fresh and more perishable foods, such as fruits or fish (leading to unhealthier diets and long-term health costs).

During the pandemic, access to food is not only a problem for the poorest, but also in many cases for people with greater resources who have traditionally been able to afford fresh products of high nutritional value and healthy diets. Among them, the at-risk population, or elderly or chronically ill people, who have to stay at home.

The pandemic has taught us that in times of crisis, it is not only essential to ensure the flow of non-perishable food, but also the linkages between consumers and producers. This facilitates access to fresh foods and healthy diets for all, as well as maintaining demand and sustaining local production, and in turn combating food loss and waste.

To date, we have witnessed the rapid implementation of initiatives to address these challenges.

In Spain, the municipality of Valladolid helped to set up safe home delivery of ‘zero kilometre’ or local foods that have not travelled far after production. The Government of Oman has transformed the fish auction markets from a physical marketplace to a digital platform, where market workers upload photos of the catch and wholesalers, retailers and restaurants can view the daily offer and place their orders online.

Even before the pandemic, the South African “Second Harvest” program, led by a non-profit organization, allowed commercial farmers to donate to vulnerable people the post-harvest surplus produced directly from the farms and distributed with refrigerated vehicles, preserving their quality and nutritional value.

The 2021 Food Systems Summit, convened by the United Nations Secretary General, will be a great opportunity to rethink how to improve access to healthy diets and income for small producers, as well as reducing loss and waste. (Source)

  • It has been estimated that, to end hunger by 2030, additional investments in agriculture amounting to US$265 billion a year between 2016 and 2030 will be required at the global level, US$41 billion of which should be committed to social protection to reach the poorest in rural areas; and US$198 billion for pro-poor investment in productive and inclusive livelihood schemes, including regarding water  (Source)
  • We are facing a time of immense challenges: one in eight people in the world live in extreme poverty; 815 million people are undernourished; 1.3 billion tonnes of food is wasted every year; six million children die before their fifth birthday each year; 202 million people are unemployed; three billion people rely on wood, coal, charcoal or animal waste for cooking and heating; our soils, freshwater, oceans, forests are being rapidly degraded, biodiversity eroded; and climate change is putting even more pressure on resources we depend on, disrupting national economies and blighting many people’s lives SOFI p.159 (Source; Source; Source)
  • Did you know 1km2 of desert locusts can eat the same food as 35,000 people? (Source)

Further reading from UNCCD library 

📚 Word of the Week - Food Loss

Food loss is the decrease in the quantity or quality of food resulting from decisions and actions by food suppliers in the chain, excluding retailers, food service providers and consumers (SOFA, 2019) Food waste refers to the decrease in the quantity or quality of food resulting from decisions and actions by retailers, food service providers and consumers (SOFA, 2019)

  • Stop the waste of food. On 29 September 2020, we celebrate the first observance of the International Day of Awareness of Food Loss and Waste. It also comes during the global COVID-19 pandemic, that has brought about a wake-up call on the need to transform and rebalance the way our food is produced and consumed. Wasting less, eating better and adopting a sustainable lifestyle are key to building a world free of hunger. Little changes to our daily habits can make a huge global impact. Take action. Stop food loss and waste. For the people and for the planet. (Source)
  • Globally, around 14 percent of food produced is lost between harvest and retail. Significant quantities are also wasted in retail and at the consumption level. When food is loss or wasted, all the resources that were used to produce this food including water, land, energy, labour and capital – go to waste. In addition, the disposal of food loss and waste in landfills, leads to greenhouse gas emissions, contributing to climate change. 
  • 15 quick tips for reducing food waste and becoming a Food hero Three smart ways innovation is helping reduce food loss and waste. One thing is clear: in this time of crisis, there is no room for food loss and waste! (Source)

Publications, articles and more about food loss and food waste; land footprint; consumption from UNCCD Library

📚 Word of the Week - Gender and Land

UNCCD parties are committed to improving the quality of life for women worldwide. In September 2017, the UNCCD’s Gender Action Plan (GAP) was adopted at COP13 in Ordos, China. Its overall goal is to support and enhance the implementation of the gender-related decisions and mandates adopted in the UNCCD process.  

Women hold valuable knowledge on land use and management, especially in the rural areas. Therefore, using gender‐specific ways of documenting and preserving women’s knowledge should be central to sustainable management and restoration efforts. Increasing women’s presence in decision-making will play a pivotal role in closing the gender gap in land ownership and management and help create a land degradation neutral world that is gender responsive. (Source)

The role of women’s empowerment for land and soil health is not yet well understood and also seldom recognized in interventions that aim to improve soil health and land management outcomes. Soil health outcomes and thus food system sustainability can be dramatically strengthened by better addressing gendered preferences and constraints.(Source)

  • Information and data for a nuanced, gender-responsive analysis of the country context for LDN projects – particularly major political, legal and social factors that influence the realization of women’s land rights – can be accessed at the following knowledge hubs ( p. 18)(Source)
  • Examples of gender-responsive technologies and training in LDN projects (  p. 21)(Source)
  • Examples of LDN project-based Gender Action Plans (p. 31)(Source)
  • One in three people on earth depend directly on agriculture, while nearly 80% of employed women in least developed countries report agriculture as their primary livelihood(Source)
  • Studies found that women with secure land rights benefit from having greater status within the household, an increased role in decision-making and a higher likelihood of investing in soil conservation and agroforestry. Likewise, efforts to bolster the land rights of collectively-held land users, who by some estimates hold 65% of the world’s land areas under customary systems, have led to enhanced land use and management outcomes(Source)
  • Women typically own less land and have less secure rights over land than men.  Women make up, on average, fewer than 20% of the world’s landholders, with a wide range across countries(Source)
  • Yet women are active in defending their rights and combating desertification, i.e. many are involved in counteracting land degradation or even in its restoration via associations, farmers’ organizations and individual initiatives. Operators and policymakers must now take these women stakeholders into better account, as they are too often overlooked in policies to combat desertification. (Source)
  • Women—in addition to their farming activities, particularly growing subsistence crops—shoulder most tasks encompassed by the social reproduction concept (e.g. domestic activities, child- and elder-care). This unpaid yet essential work is time consuming and restricts women’s mobility. (Source)
  • In dryland countries with low human development rates, women’s heavy and arduous workloads increase when resources such as water, fuelwood or products gathered for food, medicinal purposes or handicrafts are in short supply.(Source)
  • But women are also active in defending their rights and combatting desertification, i.e. many are involved in counteracting land degradation or even in its restoration via associations, farmers’ organizations and individual initiatives. Operators and policymakers must now take these women stakeholders into better account, as they are too often overlooked in policies to combat desertification.(Source)
  • UNICEF said the 200 million hours women and girls spend every day collecting water is a colossal waste of their valuable time. However, UN estimates are that in sub-Saharan Africa, for example, for 29 per cent of the population (37 per cent in rural areas and 14 per cent in urban areas), improved drinking water sources are 30 minutes or more away. (Source)
  • In sub-Saharan Africa, one roundtrip to collect water is 33 minutes on average in rural areas and 25 minutes in urban areas. In Asia, the numbers are 21 minutes and 19 minutes respectively. However for particular countries the figures may be higher. A single trip takes longer than an hour in Mauritania, Somalia, Tunisia and Yemen. (Source)

Publications, articles and more about gender and land, gender equality, gender and land rights

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📚 Word of the Week - Disaster Risk Reduction

The State of Climate Services 2020 Report: Move from Early Warnings to Early Action, released on Tuesday by the UN World Meteorological Organization (WMO), underscored the need to switch to impact-based forecasting – an evolution from “what the weather will be” to “what the weather will do” so that people and businesses can act early, based on the warnings. 

“Early warning systems constitute a prerequisite for effective disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. Being prepared and able to react at the right time, in the right place, can save many lives and protect the livelihoods of communities everywhere,” Petteri Taalas, Secretary-General of WMO, said in a foreword to the report. 

He also highlighted that while it could take years to recover from the human and economic toll of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is crucial to remember that climate change will continue to pose an on-going and increasing threat to human lives, ecosystems, economies and societies for centuries to come. 

Globally over the past 50 years, some 11,000 disasters, attributed to weather, climate and water-related hazards, claimed over 2 million lives and cost the world economy $3.6 trillion, according to WMO. 

In 2018 alone, storms, floods, droughts and wildfires left some 108 million people in need of international humanitarian assistance. By 2030, this number could increase by almost 50 per cent at a cost of around $20 billion a year. 

In spite of the alarming figures, one in three people are still not adequately covered by early warning systems, with communities in Africa, least developed countries and small island developing States most affected, the UN agency added, citing challenges such as weak dissemination of early warning, inadequate observing networks, and insufficient capacity to translate early warning into early action.  (Source)

More on disaster risk reduction, early warning systemsFurther reading from UNCCD library 

📚 Word of the Week - Poverty

Poverty entails more than the lack of income and productive resources to ensure sustainable livelihoods. Its manifestations include hunger and malnutrition, limited access to education and other basic services, social discrimination and exclusion, as well as the lack of participation in decision-making.

In 2015, more than 736 million people lived below the international poverty line. Around 10 per cent of the world population is living in extreme poverty and struggling to fulfil the most basic needs like health, education, and access to water and sanitation, to name a few.

  • There are 122 women aged 25 to 34 living in poverty for every 100 men of the same age group, and more than 160 million children are at risk of continuing to live in extreme poverty by 2030.

As the United Nations commemorates International Day for the Eradication of Poverty, the rich are getting richer and the poor poorer– which may also reflect the realities of widespread economic inequalities worldwide.

  • The world’s total population is around 7.8 billion, and according to the UN, more than 736 million people live below the international poverty line.

By 2021, as many as 150 million more people could be living in extreme poverty.

  • In contrast, the wealth of the world’s billionaires reached a new record high in the middle of the pandemic, primarily as “a rebound in tech stocks boosting the fortunes of the global elite”, according to a report released last week by UBS Global Wealth Management and PwC Switzerland.
  • Providing a sheaf of statistics, the report said total wealth held by billionaires reached $10.2 trillion last July, described as “a new high”, compared with $8.9 trillion in 2017. ( Source)
  • A World Bank report last week said extreme poverty is set to rise this year, for the first time in more than two decades, while the impact of the spreading virus is expected to push up to 115 million more people into poverty. Poverty and Shared Prosperity 2020. Reversals of Fortune  .
  • More than 40 percent of the global poor live in economies affected by conflict and violence, and, in some economies, most of the poor are concentrated in specific areas.
  • About 132 million of the global poor live in areas with high flood risk. Moreover, many of the poor face exposure to multiple risks.
  • In several countries, a large share of the poor live in areas that are both affected by conflict and face high exposure to floods.
  • Facing the COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic, many of the new poor are likely to live in congested urban settings and  to work  in  the  sectors  most  affected  by  lockdowns  and  mobility  restrictions;  many  are  engaged  in  informal services and not reached by existing social safety nets.
  • Conflict, climate change, and COVID-19 are having a clear impact on the global poor, in many cases compounding the challenges of those living in poverty.

While global poverty rates have been cut by more than half since 2000, one in ten people in developing regions still lives on less than US$ 1.90 a day - the internationally agreed poverty line, and millions of others live on slightly more than this daily amount. Significant progress has been made in many countries within Eastern and Southeastern Asia, but up to 42 per cent of the population in Sub-Saharan Africa continues to live below the poverty line.(Source)

  • 736 million people lived below the international poverty line of US$ 1.90 a day in 2015.
  • In 2018, almost 8 per cent of the world’s workers and their families lived on less than US$1.90 per person per day. Most people living below the poverty line belong to two regions: Southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa.
  • High poverty rates are often found in small, fragile and conflict-affected countries.
  • As of 2018, 55 per cent of the world’s population have no access to at least one social protection cash benefit.

Ending poverty in all its forms is the first of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. (Source)

More than 700 million people, or 10 per cent of the world population, still live in extreme poverty today, struggling to fulfil the most basic needs like health, education, and access to water and sanitation, to name a few. The majority of people living on less than $1.90 a day live in sub-Saharan Africa. Worldwide, the poverty rate in rural areas is 17.2 per cent—more than three times higher than in urban areas. 

For those who work, having a job does not guarantee a decent living. In fact, 8 per cent of employed workers and their families worldwide lived in extreme poverty in 2018. One out of five children live in extreme poverty. Ensuring social protection for all children and other vulnerable groups is critical to reduce poverty.

  • COVID-19 will widen poverty gap between women and men, new UN Women and UNDP data shows.The pandemic will push 47 million more women and girls below the poverty line, reversing decades of progress to eradicate extreme poverty (Source)
  • The data, summarized in a UN Women report From Insights to Action: Gender Equality in the wake of COVID-19, also show that the pandemic will push 96 million people into extreme poverty by 2021, 47 million of whom are women and girls. This will increase the total number of women and girls living in extreme poverty to 435 million, with projections showing that this number will not revert to pre-pandemic levels until 2030.
  • For instance, in Sub-Saharan Africa, 55 percent of the population (558 million people) is multidimensionally poor. Of these, 98 percent (547 million people) do not have access to clean cooking fuel, 84 percent (470 million people) lack access to electricity and 66 percent (366 million people) do not have access to clean drinking water. (Source)
  • With 59 percent of the world’s poor women currently living in sub-Saharan Africa, the region will continue to host the highest number of the world’s extreme poor. Yet, after making significant gains in poverty reduction in the past few years, South Asia is projected to experience a resurgence in extreme poverty. By 2030, for every 100 men aged 25–34 living in poverty in Southern Asia there will be 129 poor women, an increase from 118 in 2021.(Source)
  • An estimated 1 in 6 children—or 356 million globally—lived in extreme poverty before the pandemic, and this is set to worsen significantly, according to a new World Bank Group-UNICEF analysis. Global Estimate of Children in Monetary Poverty: An Update notes that Sub-Saharan Africa—with limited social safety nets—accounts for two-thirds of children living in households that struggle to survive on an average of $1.90 a day or less per person—the international measure for extreme poverty. South Asia accounts for nearly a fifth of these children. (Source)

Publications, articles and more about povertypoverty and land , poverty  infographic , COVID 19 and poverty, Further reading from UNCCD library 

📚 Word of the Week - Resilient cities

Resilient cities are cities that have the ability to absorb, recover and prepare for future shocks (economic, environmental, social & institutional). Resilient cities promote sustainable development, well-being and inclusive growth. How cities can increase their resilience ? (Source)

World Cities Day 2020 is the seventh global celebration since the day was launched on 31 October 2014 in Shanghai, China. Under overarching theme of Better City, Better Life, the aim of the day is to focus the international community’s attention on urbanisation as a central issue for development and to encourage cooperation among countries in meeting opportunities and addressing urban challenges towards sustainable development.(Source)

Each year a different sub-theme is selected, to either promote successes of urbanization, or address specific challenges resulting from urbanization. The sub-theme for this year is Valuing our communities and cities, and the Global Observance will be hosted in Nakuru, Kenya.

World Cities Day seeks to promote global interest in urbanization and engender international cooperation to address the challenges of urbanization, thereby contributing to sustainable urban development.

Even as the COVID-19 pandemic rages on, the climate crisis continues to impact our cities, towns and regions around the world. Daring Cities is the global, action-oriented virtual forum, designed by ICLEI and the city of Bonn, to empower urban leaders - such as mayors, city councilors, administrators, and urban thought leaders, as well as national government representatives, researchers, technical staff, business leaders, civil society decision-makers and community organizers - to tackle the climate crisis, especially in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. Running from 7 to 28 October 2020, Daring Cities features ambitious global action in a variety of time zones, languages, and formats.

Making Cities Resilient Campaign (MCR2030) - Most of the world’s population will be living in cities by 2050. Cities will be the frontlines to avoid the creation of new risk, reduce existing risk and strengthen resilience, including risks from health emergencies. Over the past ten years, the Making Cities Resilient Campaign has advocated the need for local government authorities to reduce risk and develop urban resilience. 4,347 cities demonstrate their commitment by joining. The Making Cities Resilient 2030 builds on the success and lessons learned of the previous decade of work under the Campaign. New partnerships and delivery mechanisms will be leveraged to focus gradually shift from advocacy to implementation support.

MCR2030 will be a global partnership of actors with expertise in urban resilience, DRR, climate change and the SDGs. It will provide a resilience roadmap for cities with defined commitments over time on how to improve local resilience. MCR2030 will provide a suite of tools and knowledge guidance, from existing pool with partners that cities can use to better reduce risk and build resilience. It will promote regional networks of partners with strong links and implementation experience so that cities are connected into a movement that can support implementation of resilience measures. By 2030, MCR2030 aims to have increasing number of cities committed to reducing local disaster/climate risk and building resilience.

This event is the launch of the MCR2030, with all core partners demonstrating support to this global partnership, for operation starting from January 2021.(Source)

UNECE Forum of Mayors 2020 will champion the role of local actors in addressing the climate ‎crisis. An urban focus in the context of climate change is particularly important as the UNECE region is among the most highly urbanized in the world, with some 75% of the population already living in cities. (Source)

DID YOU KNOW: Cities and desertification

  • World Mayors’ Meet To Combat Global Desertification 1997 Rome and 1999 Bonn (Source)

Rural Poverty, Migration, and Urbanization, was held in Rome's City Hall from 3 to 4 October 1997. A non-governmental organization summit, a special exhibit of "Comics to Combat Desertification", and other events took also take place in the margins of the main meeting.The Rome gathering was a parallel event to the First Conference of Parties to the Convention to Combat Desertification, which resulted in the Declaration of Rome on Cities and Desertification. The Forum was attended by mayors and local authorities, city network organizations, experts and NGOs from 21 countries affected by desertification and representatives of international organizations. The aim was to: (i) analyse linkages between soil degradation, desertification and rural-urban migration;(ii) highlight the role of local authorities in desertification control,urban management and poverty eradication by way of NAPs; and(iii) identify viable models for decentralized partnership. An informal Inter-City Desertification Network was established for the purpose of promoting information exchanges and increasing public awareness. (Source)

  • Declaration of Rome on Cities and Desertification October 1997  highlighted the cities’ potential role in combating desertification and urged a deeper and more official involvement in activities dealing with the implementation of the Convention.(Source)

Cities are increasingly becoming recipients of desertification- induced migration as millions of landless farmers are driven to urban centres. This makes it incumbent on mayors to set up a network aimed at “internal sustainable development”, said Baerbel Dieckmann, the mayor of the city of Bonn and host to the forum. Keen to host the desertification convention secretariat, the German government has been canvassing for support particularly among African countries threatened by the problem.(Source)

Mayors of nearly 100 cities around the world discussed ways and means of international cooperation. The meeting was organised by the citiy of Bonn in cooperation with UNCCD, IFAD and Rome (whose mayor, Francesco Rutelli, hosted the first forum in October 1997).

Urban areas are directly vulnerable to desertification. In particular, they are the main recipients of desertification-induced migrants forced to leave their land because of food insecurity, poverty, wood and water shortages, and conflict. Cities represent a natural link between rural areas and national governments. Furthermore, they can adopt effective policies for encouraging change. Their consumption patterns, trade links with rural areas, lobbying capacity at the national level, and ability to assist both rural areas and other cities are just a few examples of the levers that local authorities can manipulate in the fight against desertification. (Source)

  • At the 13th session of the Conference of Parties (COP), mayors from all over the world gather during the High Level segment to exchange on opportunities for local governments to help address the challenges of land degradation. With respect to the questions “How can we minimize land use and have livable cities?” and “How can we meet daily needs in a sustainable manner?”, interventions emphasized that the ways in which cities are planned, financed, developed, built, governed and managed has a direct impact on sustainability and resilience that goes well beyond urban boundaries.
  • While optimizing land use, better land-use planning should aim to create multiple benefits for people, soil and nature. In this context, and to reaffirm the progress made at COP13, more than 80 Ministers from around the world issued the Ordos Declaration urging countries to step up efforts on all fronts to tackle desertification – one of the planet’s most pressing global challenges. The document also includes an invitation to “local governments, in particular, to collaborate to create inclusive and sustainable cities using sustainable land management approaches and integrated land use planning”.
  • The issue was brought forward at UNCCD COP14, held in India in September 2019 with a renewed attention to the role of local governments as part of the solution in the fight against DLDD. A Local and Regional Governments Day (facilitated by ICLEI – local governments for sustainability) was held on 7 September with more than 100 participants and the conclusions of the day then fed into the Ministerial Roundtable at the high-level segment on “Rural and urban communities – failing or flourishing together”. High level participants highlighted that rural and urban communities needed to act as partners and not competitors. Land-use planning should be considered together with natural ecosystem conservation. Participants also highlighted the need to increase the linkages with the market and promote collaboration between the public and private sectors to bring together sustainable supply and value chains. In the New Delhi Declaration, Parties decided to “Encourage local governments to adopt integrated land use management and enhanced land governance to rehabilitate the natural resource base that makes cities sustainable, taking into consideration the New Urban Agenda, including by reducing rates of land consumption and soil sealing along with biodiversity and ecosystem loss”.

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📚 Fact of the Month November 2020 - Land-use change, agricultural expansion, and urbanization cause more than 30% of emerging disease events 

Land use change is a major global driver of pandemic risk. New study stems from an urgent virtual workshop convened by the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) to investigate the links between pandemic risk and the degradation of nature. 

It finds that risk is increasing rapidly, with more than five new diseases emerging in people every year, any one of which could potentially spark a pandemic. 

COVID 19 is at least the sixth global health pandemic since the Great Influenza Pandemic of 1918, also known as the Spanish flu, the 22 experts said. 

They stressed that although the new disease has its origins in microbes carried by animals, like all pandemics, its emergence has been entirely driven by human activities

“There is no great mystery about the cause of the COVID-19 pandemic – or of any modern pandemic”, Dr. Peter Daszak, President of EcoHealth Alliance and Chair of the IPBES workshop.  

“The same human activities that drive climate change and biodiversity loss also drive pandemic risk through their impacts on our environment. Changes in the way we use land; the expansion and intensification of agriculture; and unsustainable trade, production and consumption disrupt nature and increase contact between wildlife.”

This report embraces the need for transformative change and uses scientific evidence to identify policy options to prevent pandemics. Many of these may seem costly, difficult to execute, and their impact uncertain. However, economic analysis suggests their costs will be trivial in comparison to the trillions of dollars of impact due to COVID-19, let alone the rising tide of future diseases.

The scientific evidence reviewed here, and the societal and economic impacts of COVID-19 provide a powerful incentive to adopt these policy options and create the transformative change needed to prevent future pandemics. This will provide benefits to health, biodiversity conservation, our economies, and sustainable development. Above all, it will provide a vision of our future in which we have escaped the current ‘Pandemic Era’.  

Enabling mechanisms and the role of the Rio conventions:

• Launching a high-level intergovernmental council on pandemic prevention, that would provide for cooperation among governments and work at the crossroads of the three Rio conventions to: 1) provide policy-relevant scientific information on the emergence of diseases, predict high-risk areas, evaluate economic impact of potential pandemics, highlight research gaps; and 2) coordinate the design of a monitoring framework, and possibly lay the groundwork for an agreement on goals and targets to be met by all partners for implementing the One Health approach (i.e. one that links human health, animal health and environmental sectors).

A high-level coordinating structure that is stable over time, funded by country contributions, and with a clear mandate to use One Health approaches to prevent pandemics, could ensure the necessary synergies to institutionalize a global strategy to break free of the Pandemic Era. This "high level council" could work at the crossroads of the activities and actions of the three Rio conventions, while having strong links with the other biodiversity conventions, including CITES and the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance.

NOTE: The report, its recommendations and conclusions have not been reviewed, endorsed or approved by the member States of IPBES – it represents the expertise and perspectives of the experts who participated in the workshop, listed here in full: https://ipbes.net/biodiversity-pandemics-participants

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📚 Word of the Week - Ecosystem restoration

Ecosystem restoration means assisting in the recovery of ecosystems that have been degraded or destroyed, as well as conserving the ecosystems that are still intact. Healthier ecosystems, with richer biodiversity, yield greater benefits such as more fertile soils, bigger yields of timber and fish, and larger stores of greenhouse gases. 

Restoration can happen in many ways – for example through actively planting or by removing pressures so that nature can recover on its own. It is not always possible – or desirable – to return an ecosystem to its original state. We still need farmland and infrastructure on land that was once forest, for instance, and ecosystems, like societies, need to adapt to a changing climate.

Between now and 2030, the restoration of 350 million hectares of degraded terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems could generate US$9 trillion in ecosystem services. Restoration could also remove 13 to 26 gigatons of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. The economic benefits of such interventions exceed ten times the cost of investment, whereas inaction is at least three times more costly than ecosystem restoration. (Source)

There is increased political and scientific attention for land and ecosystem restoration, and 2021 will see the start of the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration. This attention comes from the multiple benefits that restoration provides and has translated into a large number of countries setting restoration goals and commitments under different UN Conventions and other initiatives. New policy brief provides an inventory of these national commitments and provides an estimate of the total current global restoration ambition level, where these commitments are located, geographically, and what they entail. Finally, it provides insights into where and how to improve future national plans for restoration. Restoration is seeing increased attention from multiple angles. There is increasing global attention and ambition for restoration of land and ecosystems.

There is an increasing attention for the possible role of ecosystem restoration, including improved land management, in realising global sustainability ambitions (Suding et al., 2015; Chazdon et al., 2017). These ambitions are expressed in the goals and targets of the UN Convention to Combat Desertification, the UN Convention on Biological Diversity, and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. These three conventions are the Rio Conventions, agreed at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. Restoration
ambitions are also included in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and in various other international and regional agreements and initiatives.

The increased attention for restoration follows a number of high-level reports that highlight the extent and impact of climate change, land degradation and biodiversity loss.

This is exemplified by the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) Land Degradation and Restoration Assessment (2018), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Climate Change and Land (2019), and the first edition of the Global Land Outlook by the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) (2017), as well as much-discussed journal articles on reforestation potential and the role of nature-based solutions in tackling climate change (Bastin et al., 2019; Griscom et al., 2017; Roe et al., 2019; Strassburg et al., 2019).

Furthermore, a number of initiatives have arisen to build knowledge networks and capacity development, such as the Global Partnership on Forest and Landscape Restoration (2003),the Bonn Challenge (2011) and New York Declaration on Forests (2014). Most recently, the United Nations (UN) has declared the years between 2021 and 2030 as the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration, jointly led by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), supported by collaborating agencies including the three Rio Conventions, other international conventions, and regional partners including the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).(Source:Goals and Commitments for the Restoration Decade. A global overview of countries’ restoration commitments under the Rio Conventions and other pledges )

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📚 Word of the Week - Innovations

An innovation is something original and more effective and, as a consequence, new, that "breaks into" the market or society. An innovation is an idea that has been transformed into practical reality. For a business, this is a product, process, or business concept, or combinations that have been activated in the marketplace and produce new profits and growth for the organization. Innovation is most commonly associated with business and technology, but it happens in any field where people introduce change, including the arts, medicine, politics, cooking, language—even philosophy and religion.

“The agriculture industry has experienced a massive technological shift..” “Precision agriculture involves big data, drones, sensors, and farm management software …  Environmental controls, cellular agriculture (micro farms), smart packaging technology, gene manipulation, and e-grocer businesses have also pushed the entire agricultural business world into the computer age.”These innovative practices and technologies may very well prove to be more than just the future of farming and agriculture — they may be the very keys to the survival of the human race. (Source: 5 Innovative Agricultural Practices That Are Changing the World)

Innovation in food production is needed, and it needs to be adopted on a wide scale. The agricultural innovations needed will necessarily raise productivity and water-use efficiency of crops, while protecting the environment by reducing greenhouse gas emissions from farming.

The food and agriculture sector is expected to provide healthy, safe and nutritious food for a growing population, while at the same time supplying feed for more and more farm animals, and furnishing fibre and fuel and other bio-based products for a range of industrial uses. The sector must also use natural resources more sustainabily to preserve available land, water, and biodiversity resources, and respond to climate change. To meet these challenges and respond to opportunities, the sector will need to embrace innovative approaches to improve productivity in a sutainable manner.

At the farm level, many innovations are “process innovations” as they relate to improving production techniques; for example, adopting improving seeds or irrigation systems. Downstream industries also innovate new and improved products, such as functional attributes for food (health) or in the chemical or pharmaceutical industry (bioeconomy). All along the the supply chain, marketing and organisational innovations are increasingly important.

OECD work on innovation systems in food and agriculture explores the relationships between innovation, productivity and sustainability, and examines the respective roles for the government and the private sector in strengthening agricultural innovation systems and facilitating adoption of more innovative practices at the farm and agri-food firm level. As part of this work, we have developed a framework to review the impacts of a wide range of policies on the creation and adoption of innovations needed to increase productivity and sustainability in food and agriculture, leading to concrete recommendations for each policy area. (Source)

In agriculture "innovation is an imperative" but it should not be considered as an objective itself. Innovation should rather serve as means to reach our shared goals: to eliminate poverty and hunger and respond to the challenges listed above. Therefore, we should ensure that innovations are available, accessible and affordable also in the most remote areas, and for the poorest of the poor. In the least developed countries priority should be given to those innovations that are focusing on the basic needs. In any way, innovations should be inclusive and follow the participatory approach. (Source Innovation Is an Imperative – for Sustainable Food Systems)

Implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development requires a radical shift in the way food is produced, transformed and consumed. It is essential to innovate and attract the investments that are necessary to accelerate agricultural transformation and make agriculture an attractive business for farmers, in particular youth and women. Not all innovations contribute to achieving sustainable development goals in the same way. For innovation to contribute to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), it must improve :

  • productivity; equity and sustainability resource use efficiency (particularly land and water); and,
  • and green energy sources);
  • the adaptation of food systems to climate change, equity and sustainability.
  • It must also help reduce losses and waste and
  • improve the production and consumption of more nutritious food.
  • It must also help the economic development that would lift smallholder farmers out of poverty, reducing their vulnerability and building their capacity to participate actively in their country’s economy.

In particular, innovation should provide women and youth with new and more rewarding opportunities for decent employment in agriculture and along the food chain.(Source International Forum on Innovation in Agriculture and Food Systems for achieving the SDGs)

Through its investment projects and grants across the regions, IFAD has generated numerous innovative technologies, approaches and tools that provide solutions that contribute to the achievement of food and nutrition security and are targeted to addressing the challenges of climate change, natural resource management, youth unemployment, rural markets, empowerment of rural women, among others, and thereby also contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). A set of 23 innovations from more than 10 countries in the ESA region that were shared during the Nairobi event have been documented in this Catalogue of Innovations. Enhancing Smallholder Agriculture and Food System Resilience. East and Southern Africa

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📚 Word of the Week - Land and soil health

The health and productivity of global land resources are declining, while demand for those resources is increasing. The aim of land degradation neutrality (LDN) is to maintain or enhance land-based natural capital and its associated ecosystem services. The Scientific Conceptual Framework for Land Degradation Neutrality has been developed to provide a scientific approach to planning, implementing and monitoring LDN. The Science-Policy Interface of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) led the development of the conceptual framework, drawing in expertise from a diverse range of disciplines.

  • The LDN conceptual framework focuses on the supporting processes required to deliver LDN, including biophysical and socio-economic aspects, and their interactions. Neutrality implies no net loss of the land-based natural capital relative to a reference state, or baseline. Planning for neutrality involves projecting the likely cumulative impacts of land use and land management decisions, then counterbalancing anticipated losses with measures to achieve equivalent gains. Counterbalancing should occur only within individual land types, distinguished by land potential, to ensure “like for like” exchanges.
  • Actions to achieve LDN include sustainable land management (SLM) practices that avoid or reduce degradation, coupled with efforts to reverse degradation through restoration or rehabilitation of degraded land. T
  • he response hierarchy of Avoid > Reduce > Reverse land degradation articulates the priorities in planning LDN interventions. The implementation of LDN is managed at the landscape level through integrated land use planning, while achievement is assessed at national level.

Monitoring LDN status involves quantifying the balance between the area of gains (significant positive changes in LDN indicators) and area of losses (significant negative changes in LDN indicators), within each land type across the landscape. The LDN indicators (and associated metrics) are land cover (physical land cover class), land productivity (net primary productivity, NPP) and carbon stocks (soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks). Land in balance: The scientific conceptual framework for Land Degradation Neutrality (Source)

Soil health is defined as “the capacity of soil to function as a vital living system, within ecosystem and land-use boundaries, to sustain plant and animal productivity, maintain or enhance water and air quality, and promote plant and animal health” (Doran and Zeiss, 2000) Source

Healthy soils are the basis for the food we grow and for balanced ecosystems that provide clean water, biodiversity and nutrient recycling. Soils are important for our well-being, which is why they need to be preserved and nurtured. 

As part of Horizon Europe, the EU research and innovation programme for 2021-2027, the European Commission is setting up “missions” tackling areas of wide societal relevance. Members of the Soil health and food Mission Board have proposed the mission ‘Caring for soil is caring for life’. Its goal is to raise awareness on the importance of soils and to develop solutions for sustainable soil management.(Source)

Soil, a natural four‐dimensional body at the atmosphere–lithosphere interface, is organic‐carbon‐mediated realm in which solid, liquid, and gaseous phases interact at a range of scales and generate numerous ecosystem goods and services. Soil organic carbon (SOC) strongly impacts soil quality, functionality and health.

Terms soil quality and soil health should not be used interchangeable. Soil quality is related to what it does (functions), whereas soil health treats soil as a living biological entity that affects plant health. Through plant growth, soil health is also connected with the health of animals, humans, and ecosystems within its domain. Through supply of macro‐ and micronutrients, soil health, mediated by SOC dynamics is a strong determinant of global food and nutritional security. Soil C pool consists of two related but distinct components: SOC and soil inorganic C (SIC). The SIC pool comprises of primary and secondary carbonates, and the latter consists of calcitic (no net sequestration of atmospheric CO2) and silicatic (net sequestration). (Source)

Land and soil continue to be subject to severe degradation in the EU7.

  • 12.7% of Europe is affected by moderate to high erosion, causing an estimated loss of agricultural production in the EU of €1.25 billion per year.
  • Organic carbon stocks in cropland topsoils are declining. The extent of wetland and peatland in the EU has been steadily decreasing with around half of peatlands in the EU now drained and two thirds of European wetlands lost since the beginning of the 20th century. Loss of wetland and peatland has been mostly caused by land conversion for agriculture use. Also, climate change and unsustainable forest management lead to carbon losses from forest biomass and soils.
  • Local pollution is also present in all countries and 14% of an estimated total of 2.8 million potentially polluted sites from industrial activities are expected to require remediation, that is 390 000 sites. By 2018, only some 65 500 of these sites were remediated.
  • Diffuse soil contamination by atmospheric depositions, pesticides, antibiotics, excess fertilisers, microplastics, sewage sludge and other waste disposed of on land is widespread.
  • Land take and soil sealing continue predominantly at the expense of agricultural land at an annual net land take estimated at 440 km²/year in the period 2012-2018. The target of no net land take by 2050 is unlikely to be met unless annual rates of land take are reduced and land recycling increased.
  • Intensive land management and land use change negatively impacted in recent decades soil biodiversity such as the species richness of earthworms, springtails and mites.
  • In Southern, Central and Eastern Europe 25% of soils show high or very high risk of desertification corresponding to about 411 000 km².
  • Large parts of Southern Europe are likely to become desertified by 2050 as a result of climate change and inappropriate agricultural practices.
  • Salinisation affects 3.8 million ha in the EU, with severe soil salinity along the coastlines, particularly in the Mediterranean. While naturally saline soils occur, inappropriate irrigation practices, poor drainage conditions or the use of salt for de‐icing roads induce anthropogenic salinisation.

The underlying drivers of soil degradation are in general not projected to change favourably compared to current status, so the functionality of soils and land will come even under more pressure. The competition and claims on this declining, finite and degrading natural resource will only increase in the future without additional policy measures. New Soil Strategy - healthy soil for a healthy life

Key facts about soils:

  • Soil is a living resource, home to more than one quarter (25%) of our planet’s biodiversity.
  • Up to 90% of living organisms live or spent part of their lifecycle in soils, yet we know only 1% of this hidden universe.
  • Soil organisms work 365/24/7 in a coordinated effort to sustain life on Earth.
  • Soil biodiversity is an essential component of soil health.
  • Healthy soils produces more nutritious and safer food.
  • 95% of our food comes from soils.
  • Soils organisms help soils store carbon and reduce GHG emissions.
  • Soil biodiversity contributes to the remediation of soil pollution by breaking down contaminants.
  • Soils are vast, vital pharmacies.
  • Did you know that almost all of the antibiotics that we take to help us fight infections were made using soil micro-organisms?
  • In just 3 inches of soil, there are 13 quadrillion living organisms, weighing 100 million tonnes. 
  • One hectare of soil contains the weight equivalent of two cows of bacteria. 
  • There are more organisms in one gram of healthy soils than there are people on Earth. 
  • An earthworm can digest its own weight in soil every 24 hours. 50% of the planet soil passes through the gut of earthworms each year.
  • Soil organisms process 25,000 kg of organic matter in a surface area equivalent to a soccer field, which is the weight of 25 cars.  (Source FAO)

Degradation of land health – the capacity of land, relative to its potential, to sustain delivery of ecosystem services – is recognized as a major global problem in general terms, but remains poorly quantified, resulting in a lack of specific evidence to focus action. Land health surveillance and response: A framework for evidence-informed land management

According to the target and indicators of LDN, a first step towards rebuilding and restoring soil capital is to halt land degradation. An abundance of options are available to land managers in pursuit of this goal, but the appropriate solutions in each context are not always known and many hurdles still impede progress. Land health needs to be recognised as a precondition for resilient agricultural production and incentivised to trigger the desired shift and impact at scale. Restoring land health is one element of wider changes needed in the food system. Efforts to improve equitable access to natural resources (especially land and water) and access to food, to reduce unhealthy diets, and mitigate food loss and wastes are also essential. Common ground: restoring land health for sustainable agriculture IUCN (Source)

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📚 Word of the Week - Soil erosion

 Soil erosion is one of the ten major soil threats identified in the 2015 Status of the World’s Soil Resources report. It is defined as the accelerated removal of topsoil from the land surface through water, wind and tillage.

Soil erosion occurs naturally under all climatic conditions and on all continents, but it is significantly increased and accelerated by unsustainable human activities (up to 1 000 times) through intensive agriculture, deforestation, overgrazing and improper land use changes.

Soil erosion rates are much higher than soil formation rates. Soil is a finite resource, meaning its loss and degradation is not recoverable within a human lifespan. (Source)

  • Soil erosion affects soil health and productivity by removing the highly fertile topsoil and exposing the remaining soil.
  • Soil erosion decreases agricultural productivity, degrades ecosystem functions, amplifies hydrogeological risk such as landslides or floods, causes significant losses in biodiversity, damage to urban infrastructure and, in severe cases, leads to displacement of human populations.
  • Soil erosion can affect the infiltration, storage and drainage of water in the soil, resulting in waterlogging and water scarcity. In agriculture, we estimate that soil erosion can lead up to 50 percent loss in crop yields. 
  • Although soil erosion has a direct impact on farmers, it also has effects outside of agriculture. It has implications for our environment and health including on water quality, the energy sector, urban infrastructure, and our landscapes.  For example, sediments associated with soil particles displaced by wind and water can lead to off-site soil and water pollution. Soil erosion affects us all.
  • Soil erosion and land degradation pose a major threat to global food security and to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) –compromising the well-being of at least 3.2 billion people around the world.
  • Because 95 percent of the food we eat comes from the soil, soil erosion mitigation through the application of Sustainable Soil Management (SSM) is critical for protecting our soil while ensuring a sustainable and food secure world. (Source)

Key figures on soil erosion

  1. It can take up to 1 000 years to produce just 2-3 cm of soil.
  2. 33% of the Earth's soils are already degraded and over 90% could become degraded by 2050 (FAO and ITPS, 2015; IPBES, 2018).
  3. The equivalent of one soccer pitch of soil is eroded every five seconds. (FAO and ITPS, 2015).
  4. Estimated rates of accelerated soil erosion on arable or intensively grazed lands are 100-1 000 times higher than natural erosion rates.
  5. Soil erosion can lead up to 50% loss in crop yields.   
  6. The economic cost of soil degradation for the European Union is estimated to be in the order of tens of billions of euros annually. (Source)

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📚 Fact of the Month December 2020 - About 1.2 billion people don’t have access to electricity, mainly in rural areas, and 600 million of them are concentrated in Africa

Energy is central to nearly every major challenge and opportunity the world faces today. Be it for jobs, security, climate change, food production or increasing incomes, access to energy for all is essential. Sustainable energy is an opportunity too as it fuels lives, economies and the planet. Getting sustainable energy to all who want it represents one of the biggest development challenges of the 21st century. (Source)

The 7th Sustainable Development Goal (SDG7) aims at ensuring universal access to affordable, reliable, and modern energy services and substantially increasing the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix by 2030.

According to the UN, energy accounts for around 60% of the total global greenhouse gas emissions, which makes it the main factor of climate change. More than 2.7 billion of people in the world still rely on wood, charcoal or animal waste for cooking and heating, and biomass-induced air pollution causes about 1.3 million deaths each year (mainly women and children). Additionally, about 1.2 billion people don’t have access to electricity, mainly in rural areas, and 600 million of them are concentrated in Africa. (Source)

The world is making progress towards Goal 7 with encouraging signs that energy is becoming more sustainable and widely available. Access to electricity in poorer countries has begun to accelerate, energy efficiency continues to improve, and renewable energy is making impressive gains in the electricity sector. Nevertheless, more focused attention is needed to improve access to clean and safe cooking fuels and technologies for 3 billion people, to expand the use of renewable energy beyond the electricity sector, and to increase electrification in sub-Saharan Africa. In that region, only 44 per cent of the population had access, and an estimated 573 million people still lacked electricity.

  • Nearly 9 out of 10 people now have access to electricity, but reaching the unserved will require increased efforts.
  • Three billion people still lack clean cooking fuels and technologies, posing a grave threat to human health and the environment, resulting in nearly 4 million premature deaths each year. The lack of cleaner fuels and technologies remains a major contributor to poor health and environmental degradation in low- and middle-income countries.
  • Progress in the electricity sector must extend to transportation and heating to meet an ambitious renewable energy target.

However, electricity makes up only 20 per cent of final energy use. The remaining 80 per cent is concentrated in the heat and transport sectors, where modern renewables penetrated only 9 per cent and 3.3 per cent of the global market, respectively, in 2016. Meeting the ambitious SDG target will require increased policy attention to the deployment of modern renewables in both of these key sectors. (Source) ;

By 2030, there are around 660 million people who do not have access to electricity - approximately 35 million more people than in our projections from last year for the World Energy Outlook-2019 (Source)

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📚 Word of the Week - Renewable energy

Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, including carbon neutral sources like sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat. The term often also encompasses biomass as well, whose carbon neutral status is under debate.(Source)

Renewable energy sources may be the only smart choice for scaling up energy provision and meeting demand, particularly in poor rural communities, in a time of climate change. A key question is whether we can afford to use available productive land for agriculture or water for human use to provide renewable energy and power. The adequate supply of productive land is, at least, as important as the reliable supply of energy; and the fact is that the exploitation of renewables can have unintended consequences.

Energy production and delivery require lots of water and land; water supply and irrigation requires energy and land; and land-based activities such as agriculture and forestry depend upon the availability of energy and water. Energy security, for example, is threatened by the lack of available water resources for thermoelectric power and hydropower plants. Energy production intensifies the competition between different uses of land (e.g. food vs. biofuels) and can jeopardize the quality of the land for future use.

Land, water and energy as resources are all pillars of our survival and of sustainable development. They stand or fall together. To be sustainable and in particular to reach poor rural populations, we need to enhance supply, access and security across all three pillars, at the same time, while supporting global climate ambitions. (Source)

Energy for all and land degradation neutrality: Two sides of the same coin. Securing life on land (goal 15) and the provision of reliable, sustainable energy (goal 7) feature highly in the Global Goals for Sustainable Development. It is clear that done right, these goals are complementary. Given that energy-related greenhouse gas emissions are rising while the atmosphere’s sink capacity is finite, the world certainly needs to move from a high-carbon to a low-carbon lifestyle, while still providing the required energy services for inclusive and sustainable growth.

The fact is, land-based renewable energy sources such as biofuels, biomass and hydropower may be deemed more “climate friendly”, but this does not, in itself, guarantee environmental sustainability. The production of renewable energy requires the use of additional land and water, which can affect the availability of these resources for current and future generations, especially in combination with the effects of climate change, population growth and food security.

The key to securing the double benefit of climate change mitigation and energy security, particularly in the developing world, is the sustainable and equitable management of land. Increased future demands for food, fibre and fuels from biomass can only be met if the available land and water resources on a global scale are used and managed in the most efficient manner and vice versa. (Source)

International financing for renewable energy in developing countries is rising sharply. From 2000 to 2009, official international financing commitments for clean and renewable energy in developing countries ranged from $1 billion to $4 billion a year. Commitments rose to $9.9 billion in 2010 and to $18.6 billion by 2016, a tenfold increase from the early 2000s. Yearly financial flows fluctuated greatly, mainly due to the timing of large-scale hydropower investments. But overall, the share of hydropower in the total flow fell from 60 per cent between 2000 and 2009 to around 40 per cent between 2010 and 2016, while the shares of wind, geothermal and, especially, solar energy, increased. Average project size also grew from an average of $10 million per project between 2000 and 2009 to $19 million between 2014 and 2016.  (Source)

The least expensive way to achieve universal electricity access in many areas appears to be renewable energy sources: in addition to increasing grid-connected electricity generation from renewables, declining costs of small-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) for stand-alone systems and mini-grids is key in helping deliver affordable electricity access to millions. This is especially the case in remote rural areas in African countries, home to many of the people still deprived of electricity access. Decentralised solutions as a whole are the least-cost way to provide power to more than half of the population gaining access by 2030 according to our Sustainable Development Scenario. (Source)

Desert to Power Initiative
The Sahel could become the world's primary solar led region. The African Bank of Development has launched the « Solar to Desert » initiative that will provide 10 GW of solar energy by 2025 and supply 250 million people with green electricity. The initiative covers 11 countries of the Sahelian strip : Senegal, Mauritania, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Chad, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopa and Djibouti. Currently, 64% of the population in the Sahel lives without
electricity, which is a major obstacle to development, while access to clean energy could greatly reduce poverty and youth unemployment while reinforcing the objectives of the Paris Agreement. This project will create jobs and attract the private sector in the area of renewable energy. The project therefore has the potential to increase the participation of women.

Publications, articles and more about on bioenergy ;  renewable energy ;  energy ;  renewable*  from UNCCD Library

Renewable capacity expansion accounted for at least 70% of total power capacity expansion in almost all regions last year – with Africa and Middle East being the only two exceptions, with renewables accounting for only 52% and 26% respectively. 

Within the renewable energy sector itself, solar and wind accounted for 90% of all new renewable capacity additions in 2019. Specifically, solar added 98GW in 2019 – 60% of which was installed throughout Asia – whereas wind energy installed 60GW, led again by China which installed 26GW, and followed a distant second by the United States which installed 9GW.

Solar and wind now generate 623GW and 586GW respectively – close to half of all global renewable energy capacity. Regionally, Asia saw renewable energy capacity expansion grow at a slightly slower pace than in 2018, responsible for over half of all new installations with 95.5GW of new capacity. Growth in Europe and North America also increased year-on-year, up 35.3GW and 22.3GW respectively.

Africa installed only 2GW of new renewable energy capacity in 2019, only half what it installed in 2018, while the Middle East installed 2.5GW. Oceania, with cumulative capacity of 40GW, installed 6.2GW of new capacity in 2019.

The report provides a comprehensive analysis of commitments flowing to the two key areas of energy access: electrification and clean cooking. This fourth edition of the report tracks finance for electricity and clean cooking committed in 2018 to 20 Sub-Saharan African and Asian countries - known as the high-impact countries (HICs) - that together are home to more than 80 percent of people globally without energy access.

This report identifies the gaps between commitments and disbursements of development finance for energy, as tracked in the OECD Creditor Reporting System (CRS) database. To understand disbursement delays better, this study looked at evaluation reports and databases, and conducted interviews and surveys as part of deep-dives in five countries (India, Madagascar, Myanmar, Nigeria and Rwanda). (Source)

Key Findings
1. Access to electricity: Since 2010, more than a billion people have gained access to electricity, connecting 90% of the planet’s population in 2018 as a result. Yet 789 million people still live without electricity, mostly in Sub-Saharan Africa.
2. Clean cooking: Almost 3 billion people remained without access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking, residing mainly in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Over the 2010 to 2018 period, progress has remained largely stagnant, with the rate of population growth outpacing increase in access to clean cooking since 2012 in some countries.
3. Renewable energy: The share of renewables in the global energy mix reached 17.3% of final energy consumption in 2017, up from 16.3% in 2010. Renewables consumption (+2.5 percent in 2017) is growing faster than global energy consumption (+1.8 percent in 2017), continuing a trend in evidence since 2011. While renewables have seen an unprecedented uptake in the electricity sector over the last decade, the use of renewables in heating and transport sectors is lagging far behind potential.
4. Energy efficiency: Global primary energy intensity improved by 1.7% in 2017. That is better than the 1.3% average rate of progress between 1990 and 2010, but still well below the original target rate of 2.6%, and a marked slowdown from the previous two years.
5. International financial flows: International public financial flows to developing countries in support of clean and renewable energy doubled since 2010, reaching $21.4 billion in 2017. These flows mask important disparities with only 12% of flows in 2017 reaching those most in need (least developed countries and small island developing states). Enhanced international cooperation is essential to bridge the gap. 

This report, co-developed by the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) and Climate Policy initiative, provides actionable recommendations for policy makers and other stakeholders to scale up investment and mobilise capital in the sector. While global investments in renewable energy have risen steadily in recent years, they remain far below the levels required to put the world on course for a climate-safe future. From about USD 300 billion globally in recent years, annual investments in renewables must triple to USD 800 billion by 2050 to fulfil key global decarbonisation and climate goals.

Renewable energy has proven resilient and flexible amid the COVID-19 crisis, as well as providing a valuable opportunity to align economic recovery with sustainable development and climate goals. By placing renewables at the centre of stimulus plans, governments can attract investments, increase investor confidence, strengthen national energy strategies and fulfil climate pledges under the Paris Agreement.

Wind power is the cheapest way to produce electricity, but some are not persuaded. The World Bank is out to change minds. Europe and the United States now accept onshore wind power as the cheapest way to generate electricity. But this novel technology still needs subsidising before some developing countries will embrace it. Enter the World Bank.

A total of US$80 billion in subsidies from the Bank has gone over 25 years to 565 developing world onshore wind projects, to persuade governments to invest in renewables rather than rely on fossil fuels. Using data from the Global Wind Atlas, the Bank calculated that developing countries with shallow waters like India, Turkey and Sri Lanka had huge potential with fixed turbines, while others − the Philippines and South Africa, for example − would need floating foundations to reach greater depths, up to 1,000 metres.

Further reading from UNCCD library 

📚 Word of the Week -  Nature-based solutions (NbS)

Nature-based Solutions (NbS) are defined by IUCN as “actions to protect, sustainably manage, and restore natural or modified ecosystems, that address societal challenges effectively and adaptively, simultaneously providing human well-being and biodiversity benefits”. Healthy ecosystems are the foundation upon which our societies and economies are built. Today, more than ever, we are reminded that to take care of ourselves, we must take care of the environment that sustains us. The COVID-19 pandemic has shaken the planet and led to a major call for transformative change. NbS are part and parcel of the global shift to build back better

Common ground: restoring land health for sustainable agriculture report, which highlighted the close links between landscape and soil biodiversity, farm yields, and farmers’ incomes and livelihoods  shows how more constructive inter-sectoral dialogue will help to build consensus around goals, targets and indicators for sustainable agriculture.

There is a solid common ground to be built upon, between the sectors of agriculture and conservation, on the need to restore land health.There are many examples of well-known and widely practiced agroecology approaches and we have moved beyond ‘proof of concept’ in several countries where practices like agroforestry, organic farming or conservation agriculture are growing in popularity. Meanwhile many governments have made commitments to sustainable agriculture and restoration of agricultural land.

IUCN has developed a Global Standard for NbS that will enable both the public and private sectors to design, implement and monitor NbS and accelerate society’s transition to a low carbon future. It is the first-ever tool that will help design robust, durable actions for deriving benefits for people and nature.The Global Standard is structured around eight criteria, ranging from biodiversity benefits and addressing societal challenges to criteria focused on governance, financial sustainability, and policy integration

Nature-based solutions could provide one third of net reductions in greenhouse gas emissions required to meet Paris Agreement goals. Warming beyond 1.5°C will substantially increase the risk of global species extinctions. The ocean is already warmer, more acidic and less productive. Around 7 million people die every year from exposure to polluted air. Bold climate action could deliver $26 trillion in economic benefits by 2030. Renewable energy is getting cheaper all the time. Switching to a clean economy could produce over 65 million new low-carbon jobs. An investment of $1.8 trillion from 2020 to 2030 in adaptation could generate $7.1 trillion in total net benefits.(Source)

Publications, articles and more about on nature-based solutions ;   and  Further reading from UNCCD library 

📚 Word of the Week -  Mountain ecosystems

Mountains cover roughly 27 per cent of the land surface of the planet and provide essential goods and services, such as water, food and energy.   

Between 60 and 80 per cent of the world’s freshwater comes from these regions, which also contain many crops and animals used for food and medicine. 

However, mountain ecosystems are frequently coming under pressure from changes to land use and climate, and because of other factors such as overexploitation and pollution, thus putting livelihoods and food security at risk.(Source)

Mountains matter to all of us. Here are some facts about why(Source)

1. Mountains not only provide direct sustenance to and enhance the well-being of 1.1 billion mountain people around the world, but also indirectly benefit billions more living downstream.

2. Mountains are home to 15 percent of the world’s population. Over 90 percent of the world’s mountain dwellers live in developing countries, and one in two mountain people in developing countries is food insecure.

3. Mountains provide 60-80 percent of the world's freshwater. Some of the world's largest cities, including Melbourne, Nairobi, New York, Rio de Janeiro and Tokyo depend on mountains for freshwater.

4. Mountain communities produce an abundance of high-value and high-quality foods and products such as coffee, cocoa, honey, herbs, spices and handicrafts that improve livelihoods and boost local economies.

5. Mountain tourism accounts for 15–20 percent of the global tourism industry. They attract tourists for a wide-range of activities, including skiing, climbing, hiking and exploring.

6. Mountains play a key role in providing renewable energy, such as hydropower, solar power, wind power and biogas, for downstream cities and remote mountain communities. Hydropower provides around one-fifth of all electricity worldwide, and some countries rely almost exclusively on mountain regions for hydropower generation.

7. Six of the 20 plant species that supply most of the world's food originated in mountain areas. These valuable plants are maize, potatoes, barley, sorghum, quinoa, tomatoes and apples. It is difficult to imagine a nutritious diet without at least one of these foods.

8. Mountains hold cultural as well as natural significance. Recognizing this, UNESCO has designated many mountains World Heritage Sites and Biosphere Reserves (areas designated for finding solutions between sustainable development and conservation of biodiversity). In fact, almost 60 percent of all Biosphere Reserves contain mountain ecosystems. Every year on 11 December, the world celebrates International Mountain Day.

New  FAO/UNCCD publication found that between 2000 and 2017, the number of mountain people vulnerable to food insecurity in developing countries grew from 243 million to almost 350 million. 

“One in every two rural mountain people in developing countries do not have enough food to live a healthy life and they are now dealing with the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Source "Vulnerability of mountain peoples to food insecurity: updated data and analysis of drivers" .The vulnerability to food insecurity of the mountain people in the developing world is compounded by the presence and occurrence of natural hazards and armed conflicts that disrupt livelihoods or put strain on the natural resources on which mountain people depend”, the study concluded. 

Further reading from UNCCD library Publications and articles on mountain ecosystems, mountain communities,