Just Published- Pathways for Peace: Inclusive Approaches to Preventing Violent Conflict
The resurgence of violent conflict in recent years has caused immense human suffering, at enormous social and economic cost. Violent conflicts today have become complex and protracted, involving more non-state groups and regional and international actors, often linked to global challenges from climate change to transnational organized crime. It is increasingly recognized as an obstacle to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030.
This has given impetus for policy makers at all levels – from local to global – to focus on preventing violent conflict more effectively. Grounded in a shared commitment to this agenda, Pathways for Peace: Inclusive Approaches to Preventing Violent Conflict is a joint United Nations and World Bank study that looks at how development processes can better interact with diplomacy and mediation, security and other tools to prevent conflict from becoming violent.
To understand ‘what works,’ it reviews the experience of different countries and institutions to highlight elements that have contributed to peace. Central to these efforts is the need to address grievances around exclusion from access to power, opportunity and security. States hold the primary responsibility for prevention, but to be effective, civil society, the private sector, regional and international organizations must be involved. Enhancing the meaningful participation of women and youth in decision making, as well as long-term policies to address the aspirations of women and young people are fundamental to sustaining peace.
From page 149 - The Arena of Land and Natural Resources. Land-Related Disputes in Today’s Conflicts
Land is deeply evocative. It is essential to personal and communal economic well-being, livelihoods, and identity. A major resource for most economies, land is part of the social fabric. Social control of land is central to most systems of governance. Even in cases where land has not played a direct role in violent conflict, the breakdown of institutions and societal structures during conflict can revive latent frustrations or a sense of unfairness around land and resources (Marc, Verjee, and Mogaka 2015).
In the wake of conflict, land-related disputes can center on a clash of rights between returnees and current occupiers of the land
(Maze 2014). Scholars have argued that conflicts fought over land tend to be more prolonged, more stubborn to negotiation,
and thus more likely to recur than conflicts related to other arenas (Maze 2014).
read about the Darfur case ( page 150) The Darfur conflict originated in the impact of drought on African settled farmers and Arab nomadic herders and in the breakdown of agreements over the right of passage for pastoralists. Previously amicable relationships among groups unraveled as drought and famine created new migration patterns, including the migration of camel-owning Zaghawa
pastoralists of North Darfur southward beyond their traditional grazing ranges. As they moved south, they displaced others, including Masalit cattle herders and farmers.