New book titles published by Routledge on the subject of Land
Ensuring the implementation of more sustainable land management is of critical importance considering the vast environmental and socio-economic challenges we are collectively facing – from food, water, and energy security and malnutrition, to climate change, a burgeoning global population, and reduction in biodiversity, ecosystems, and ecosystem services.Understanding the cost of inaction and beneftis of action are important in order for all stakeholders to be able to make sound, informed decisions about the amount and type of investments in land they make. Even though techniques for sustainable land management are known, many barriers remain and the financial and economic aspects are often put forward as primary obstacles. If the full value of land is not understood by all stakeholders, it may not be sustainable managed, leaving future generations with diminished choices and options to secure human and environmental well-being.
A better understanding of the economic value of land will also help correct the imbalance that can occur between the financial value of land and its economic value. For instance, land speculation and land grabbing are often separated from the actual economic value that can be obtained from land and its provisioning services. This divergence is likely to widen as land scarcity increases and land becomes increasingly seen as a ‘commodity’. Economic values can provide a common language to help entities decide between alternative land uses, set up new markets related to environmental quality, and reach the goal of land degradation neutrality.(The value of land Source ELD)
This book provides the first contemporary assessment of area-based conservation and its implications for nature and society.
Now covering 15 per cent of the land surface and a growing area of ocean, the creation of protected areas is one of the fastest conscious changes in land management in history. But this has come at a cost, including a backlash from human rights organisations about the social impacts of protected areas. At the same time, a range of new types of area-based conservation has emerged, based on indigenous people’s territories, local community lands and a new designation of “other effective area-based conservation measures”. This book provides a concise overview of the status and possible futures of area-based conservation. With many people calling for half the earth’s land surface to remain in a natural condition, this book taps into the urgent debate about the feasibility of such an aim and the ways in which such land might be managed. It provides a timely contribution by people who have been at the centre of the debate for the last twenty years. Building on the authors’ large personal knowledge, the book draws on global case studies where the authors have firsthand experience, including Yosemite National Park (USA), Blue Mountains National Park (Australia), Bwindi National Park (Uganda), Chingaza National Park (Colombia), Ustyart Plateau (Kazakhstan), Snowdonia National Park (Wales) and many more.
This book is essential reading for students, academics and practitioners interested in conservation and its impact on society.
This book examines theories and ethnographies related to the anthropology of power in conservation.
Conservation thought and practice is power laden—conservation thought is powerfully shaped by the history of ideas of nature and its relation to people, and conservation interventions govern and affect peoples and ecologies. This book argues that being able to think deeply, particularly about power, improves conservation policy-making and practice. Political ecology is by far the most well-known and well-published approach to thinking about power in conservation. This book analyzes the relatively neglected but robust anthropology of conservation literature on politics and power outside political ecology, especially literature rooted in Foucault. It is intended to make four of Foucault’s concepts of power accessible, concepts that are most used in the anthropology of conservation: the power of discourses, discipline and governmentality, subject formation, and neoliberal governmentality. The important ethnographic literature that these concepts have stimulated is also examined. Together, theory and ethnography underpin our emerging understanding of a new, Anthropocene-shaped world.
This book will be of great interest to students and scholars of conservation, environmental anthropology, and political ecology, as well as conservation practitioners and policy-makers.
This book provides a systematic review of nature-based solutions and their potential to address current environmental challenges.
In the 21st century, society is faced by rapid urbanisation and population growth, degradation and loss of natural capital and associated ecosystem services, an increase in natural disaster risks, and climate change. With growing recognition of the need to work with ecosystems to resolve these issues there is now a move towards nature-based solutions, which involve utilising nature’s ecosystem to solve societal challenges while providing multiple co-benefits. This book systematically reviews nature-based solutions from a public policy angle, assessing policy developments which encourage the implementation of nature-based solutions to address societal challenges while simultaneously providing human well-being and biodiversity benefits. This includes enhancing sustainable urbanisation, restoring degraded ecosystems, mitigating and adapting to climate change, and reducing risks from natural disasters. While nature-based solutions can be applied strategically and equitably to help societies address a variety of climatic and non-climatic challenges, there is still a lack of understanding on how best to implement them. The book concludes by providing a best practice guide for those aiming to turn societal challenges into opportunities.
This book will be of great interest to policymakers, practitioners and researchers involved in nature-based solutions, sustainable urban planning, environmental management, and sustainable development generally.
- Industrial Tree Plantations and the Land Rush in China. Implications for Global Land Grabbing By Yunan Xu
This book analyses the political and economic causes, mechanisms and impacts of the industrial tree plantation boom in China.
In the past two decades, the industrial tree plantation sector has been expanding rapidly in China, especially in Guangxi Province. Based on extensive primary data, this book concentrates on the political economy of the sector’s expansion with a focus on the recent and dramatic agrarian transformation involving the land-labour nexus, the impact on villagers’ livelihoods, the role of the state, and political reactions from below. The book questions the stereotypical portrayal of local communities as the excluded villager. Instead, it demonstrates that this is a much more complex issue with varying levels of passive and active forms of inclusion and exclusion within local communities. While most literature focuses on crop booms for food and biofuel production the industrial plantation sector has largely been overlooked, despite it being one of the biggest sectors in the current rush for land. Filling this lacuna, this book also reveals that while China has traditionally been painted as a major land grabber and consumer of crop booms it is also a destination of foreign investment. In doing so the book highlights how large-scale foreign land deals can also take place in traditional ‘grabber’ countries like China which feeds into the wider debates about global land politics and resource grabbing.
This book will be of great interest to students and scholars of land grabbing, rural development and agrarian transformations, as well as Chinese development.
This book provides one of the most detailed and comprehensive examinations of the Moroccan argan tree, the products derived from it and its cultural significance.
The Moroccan argan trade is booming, but as the tree provides important ecological functions and plays an important role, both financially and culturally, for the Amazigh (Berber) people it has become a key topic of debate. This book thoroughly examines the production stories, benefits and impacts and provides a value-chain analysis which compares different cooperatives and approaches to production. It assesses the fair-trade approaches and attempts at sustainable production of the bio-trade resource. While being a vital source of income, the argan tree has a significant cultural importance to the Indigenous people and the book assesses the impact of the argan trade on their well-being, community and livelihoods. It examines Indigenous knowledge and intellectual property issues relating to the trade, as well as Berber-state law and politics.
Assessing factors relating to legal and economic geography international trade, socio-cultural and human-nature relationships, the book provides a comprehensive analysis of the argan tree which will appeal to students, scholars and practitioners.
- Forest Conservation and Sustainability in Indonesia A Political Economy Study of International Governance Failure By Bernice Maxton-Lee
Despite carefully constructed conservation interventions, deforestation in Indonesia is not being stopped. This book identifies why large-scale international forest conservation has failed to reduce deforestation in Indonesia and considers why key stakeholders have not responded as expected to these conservation interventions.
The book maps the history of deforestation in Indonesia in the context of global political economy, exploring the relationship between international trade, the interests and ideology behind global sustainability programmes and the failures of forest conservation in Indonesia. Global economic and political ideologies are shown to have profoundly shaped deforestation. The author argues that the same forces continue to prevent positive outcomes. Case study chapters analyse three major international programmes: Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+), the Norway-Indonesia bilateral partnership, and the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) in Indonesia. The findings provide insight into the failures of global climate change policy and suggest how the book’s theoretical model can be used to analyse other complex environmental problems.
The book is a useful reference for students of environmental science and policy, political theory, international relations, development and economics. It will also be of interest to forestry professionals and practitioners working in NGOs.
This book provides an introduction to peatlands for the non-specialist student reader and for all those concerned about environmental protection, and is an essential guide to peatland history and heritage for scientists and enthusiasts.
Peat is formed when vegetation partially decays in a waterlogged environment and occurs extensively throughout both temperate and tropical regions. Interest in peatlands is currently high due to the degradation of global peatlands which is disrupting hydrology and contributing to greenhouse gas emissions. This book opens by explaining how peat is formed, its properties and worldwide distribution, and defines related terms such as mires, wetlands, bogs and marshes. There is discussion of the ecology and wildlife of peatlands as well as their ability to preserve pollen and organic remains as environmental archives. It also addresses the history, heritage and cultural exploitation of peat, extending back to pre-Roman times, and the degradation of peatlands over the centuries, particularly as a source of fuel but more recently for commercial horticulture. Other chapters discuss the ecosystem services delivered by peatlands, and how their destruction is contributing to biodiversity loss, flooding or drought, and climate change. Finally, the many current peatland restoration projects around the world are highlighted.
Overall the book provides a wide-ranging but concise overview of peatlands from both a natural and social science perspective, and will be invaluable for students of ecology, geography, environmental studies and history.
- Local Experiences of Mining in Peru Social and Spatial Transformations in the Andes By Gerardo Castillo Guzmán
This book uses a multimethod approach to examine local experience of contemporary mining development in the Peruvian Andes, creating an understanding of the transformations that rural societies experience in this context.
Mining is a major component of economic growth in many resource endowed countries, whilst also causing mixed social, cultural, and environmental effects. Most current literature on contemporary mining in Peru is largely focussed on conflict; however, in this text, the author takes a differing approach by examining the experiences of families in the vicinity of Rio Tinto’s La Granja exploration copper project, Northern Peru, an area with great significance due to the mining investment and development, which has taken place over the past 25 years. The book first provides a critical discussion about production of space theories, and debates on spatial mobility, highlighting their relevance to understanding large-scale mining developments, especially in the Peruvian Andes. The following chapters analyze spatial transformations mining development has prompted, focusing on four axes: access to space, production, mobility, and representations of space. A comprehensive narrative is constructed drawing on diverse voices and perspectives, including those of family heads and their partners, local leaders, company employees, and social scientists. The book concludes by discussing how the findings challenge some of the current accounts of the social effects of mining developement on rural communities and pose significant implications for sustainable development programs and place-based practices.
By taking an interdisciplinary approach, this book will appeal to a wide audience including geographers, social anthropologists, and social scientists interested in the social effects of mining as well as researchers interested in current Latin American Studies and Rural Development.
This book provides a comprehensive understanding of environmental regionalism at the international level, analyzing the concept and identifying recurring patterns from six in-depth case studies.
While ecoregions or environmental regions are defined on ecological boundaries rather than administrative criteria, ecoregionalism is the idea that regional dynamics should cluster around ecoregions, while ecoregionalization is the tendency of regional dynamics to cluster around ecoregions. Focusing on the international level, this book presents six cases of ecoregional processes from around the world and the regional environmental agreements: two are terrestrial, the Alps and the Andes; two are marine, the Mediterranean Sea and the Baltic Sea; two are related to freshwater ecosystems: the Amu Darya in Central Asia and the Great Lakes in North America. The book analyzes both ecoregional processes focused on the environment, as well as intersectoral ecoregional processes. The case studies are analyzed based on the ecoregional governance framework, developed by the author for this book. Despite the diversity of context, the similarity of the governance system of the six cases is striking. Several recurring patterns have been identified, which may also extend to the subnational level. They are not design principles, but may be taken into consideration for the design or redesign of current and future regional environmental agreements and processes.
This book will be of great interest to students and scholars of environmental politics, natural resource management, spatial planning and international relations.
- Environmental Justice and Oil Pollution Laws Comparing Enforcement in the United States and Nigeria By Eloamaka Carol Okonkwo
This book explores the relationship between oil pollution laws and environmental justice by comparing and contrasting the United States and Nigeria.
Critically, this book not only examines the fluidity of oil pollutions laws but also how effective or ineffective enforcement can be when viewed through the lens of environmental justice. Using Nigeria as a case study and drawing upon examples from the United States, it examines the legal and institutional challenges impacting upon the effective enforcement of laws and provides a contrasting view of developed and developing countries. Focusing on the oil and gas industry, the book discusses the laws and international acceptable standards (IAS) in these industries, the principles behind their application, the existing barriers to their effective implementation, and how to overcome those barriers. Utilising an environmental justice framework, the book demonstrates the synergy between policy-making, human rights, and justice in oil-producing regions as well as addressing the importance of protecting the rights of minorities. Through a comparative analysis of the United States and Nigeria, this book draws out enforcement approaches and mechanisms for tackling oil-related pollution with a view to reducing environmental injustice in developing countries. Examining the role of NGOs in pursuing environmental justice matters, the book showed the regional courts as one avenue of overcoming the enforcement challenges faced by the developing countries.
This book will be of great interest to students and scholars of environmental law, environmental justice, minorities' rights, business and human rights, energy law, and natural resource governance
Rural Development in Practice focuses on the evolving nature of rural development in the Global South. It outlines how we got to where we are today, checks what we can learn from history, and explores the development drivers, facilitators, and obstacles most likely to shape the years ahead.
The book covers the management of fishing grounds, forests, grazing lands, water sources and soil, and looks at the effects of infrastructure, trade mechanisms, and new crop varieties on farming. The author discusses the opportunities and challenges of microfinance, social safety nets and migration, and assesses the way ICT and climate change are changing everything, rapidly. Real-life examples, exercises, role-plays, textboxes, anecdotes, and illustrative artwork are used to bring concepts and theories to life, and every chapter concludes with a section that explores how best to tackle the tough and complex dilemmas of our time.
Rural Development in Practice is essential reading for students at all levels and may be of benefit for programme and policy staff in rural-focused government departments, multilateral agencies, and non-government organisations.
This book showcases new empirical findings on the conceptualization, design, and evaluation of land management interventions and addresses two crucial aspects: how and under which conditions such interventions are responsible, and how such interventions can be supported by smart technologies. Responsible and Smart Land Management Interventions is for all types of actors in land management. Although primarily based on cases from Africa, it addresses land management issues from practical and theoretical perspectives relevant for land managers worldwide. It brings the discourse up to date and helps all practitioners designing new policies and those looking for new instruments to do so.
Aimed at land academics, including students, teachers, and researchers, as well as practitioners, including those working within international organizations, donor organizations, NGOs, and land independent consultants, this book
- Delivers innovative methodologies for land management for professionals involved in land administration projects
- Explores land management from a geodetic and spatial planning perspective
- Includes real cases, empirical data, and analysis in contemporary and alternative land management developments in Africa
- Addresses important land issues which contribute to national development and achieving United Nations' SDGs
- Discusses contemporary research findings related to societal needs in land administration which are equally valid for non-African contexts
- Acts as a new teaching resource for land management and land administration courses, and land-related disciplines in geodesy, human geography, development studies, and environmental planning
- For more titles please see the book series Earthscan Studies in Natural Resource Management and Routledge Studies of the Extractive Industries and Sustainable Development
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