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A test of endurance-Addressing migration and security risks by means of landscape restoration in Africa

For the African continent, the ability to manage trade-offs at a landscape scale has huge potential to influence the future of migration and conflict, as well as the future of land resources, food security and biodiversity. Integrated land management can act as an accelerator for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals and can be considered an essential element of a sustainable strategy to address the root causes of irregular migration. A Marshall Plan for sub-Saharan Africa and the Sahel should therefore include the potential of landscape restoration approaches to achieve multiple wins, while taking into account its long-term effects and short- and medium-term risks.

This report aims to assess, by setting out a stakeholder mapping, to what extent landscape restoration initiatives (potentially) address migration and security objectives in Africa. The issue of land degradation and restoration is receiving increasing attention from policy makers with regard to addressing the root causes of migration. Landscape restoration initiatives in Africa have political momentum, with African political leaders endorsing restoration initiatives such as the African Forest Landscape Restoration Initiative (AFR100) and the Great Green Wall Initiative. Africa is particularly vulnerable to land degradation, with desertifcation affecting around 45 percent of Africa’s land area.

Further reading:

1 Introduction 6
1.1 Landscape restoration and migration-security links 7
1.2 Objective of stakeholder mapping 8
1.3 Structure of the report 9
2 Landscape restoration approaches and the link with conflict/migration/security 10
2.1 Overview of landscape restoration approaches 10
2.2 The African landscape situation 12
2.3 The relationship between land degradation, migration, conflict and food security 14
2.3.1 Land degradation: the gateway to a food insecure and hungry world 14
2.3.2 Land degradation and conflict: the road from academic debate to the UN Security Council 15
2.3.3 Land degradation and migration 18
3 Key stakeholders and networks 19
3.1 Stakeholders 20
3.1.1 International organisations 22
3.1.2 Regional organisations 23
3.1.3 Donor governments 24
3.1.4 Civil society organisations 24
3.1.5 (Development) Banks 25
3.1.6 Private sector 26
3.1.7 Foundations and non-profit organisations 28
3.1.8 Research institutes and think tanks 29
3.1.9 Domestic beneficiaries 29
4 Project financing and scale-up potential: overview, challenges and opportunities 31
4.1 Obstacles and challenges 31
4.2 Opportunities for landscape restoration approaches contributing to migration and security objectives 34
4.3 Knowledge gaps 37
5 Conclusions 39
5.1 Recommendations 41
Appendix 1: List of interviewees 43
Appendix 2: List of most prominent landscape restoration initiatives 45
Appendix 3: Non-exhaustive list of organisations included in the stakeholder visualisation 54