A ditch made of soil and stones that protects fields from water runoff. Stones are placed on the lower side of the ditch to raise the soil wall and to stabilize the ditch, reducing the water flow. The technology can be used in several land uses types.
A stone bund is an embankment of stones constructed across the slope along a contour. The stone wall is stabilized with grasses and fodder plant species. Its main purpose is moisture harvesting and controlling soil erosion from cultivated fields so that the plants have sufficient soil depth to establish and grow.
An artificial drainage channel constructed along a steep slope to receive run-off from cut-off drains and graded structures and safely drain it towards a natural waterway. The waterway carries excess water to the river, reservoirs or gullies safely without creating erosion. Vegetative waterways can be used in place of stones and for gentler slopes. Paved waterways are suitable in steeper terrains and areas with large amount of stones.
The stone bund is an embankment constructed along the contour to minimize soil erosion and prevent runoff damage from downstream fields. It is constructed from stone/soil, with a ditch at the upper side of the bund for stabilisation. The technology is suitable for areas with gentle to undulating slopes and in cultivated areas with moderate soil depth.
A spiral tube water pump is a method of pumping water by using an undershot water wheel which has a scoop connected to a spiral tube. Spiral water pumps can carry water from the river to fields that are up to 30 meters higher than the river without the use of electricity or fuel. The pumps provide irrigation water from rivers to crop fields at a higher level.
A Californian network is a micro-irrigation system developed in California and was adapted to work with Malian irrigation systems. It uses a pump unit that feeds in water from a river or borehole. The technical objective is to use water more efficiently and increase yields.
Roof rainwater harvesting is a system where water is stored in an underground water tank. Rainwater flowing over the roof is collected, for example, on galvanised iron roofs. The technology is critical in semi-arid environments where water shortages are common.
Sub-surface drainage takes place on irrigated lands in saturated and salinized soils by means of sub-soil drainage pipes. A system of sub-soil perforated pipes with surrounding filters was installed to limit the level of the water table in the soil profile, remove salt build up, and provide an adequately aerated zone in the soil for the crop root system.
An analysis of field survey results and a conceptual model of the factors that influence cropping and fallowing practices on small farms in Brazil. A multi-fallow cultivation system that used rice, corn and bitter manioc in various relay-intercropping combinations was the most common cultivation practice observed.
Spate irrigation is a traditional water diversion and spreading technology under which seasonal floods of short duration – springing from the rainfall-rich highlands – are diverted from ephemeral rivers (wadis) to irrigate cascades of leveled and bunded fields in the coastal plains. Floodwater is distributed from field to field: when a field is completely flooded, water is conveyed to the immediate downstream field by breaching one of the bunds. This process continues until all the water is used up.
Mid-season drainage involves the removal of surface flood water from the rice crop for about seven days towards the end of tillering. It involves ridge and furrow cultivation technology, where some moisture still exists in the soil even after the toe furrow is drained. Mid-season drainage reduces methane emissions of paddy fields, with reductions ranging from 7 to 95%.
Organic fertilizer is applied to the fields to enhance productivity by increasing the level of organic matter in the soil (humus), which stimulates soil biological activity and improves soil structure, water infiltration and retention, and nutrient storage. The most commonly used organic fertilizers include compost using straw pen manure with litter or household waste.
Application of fine-grained charcoal as an amendment to improve soil quality and mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from croplands. As a soil amendment, biochar can favour long-term stabilisation of carbon stocks, serving as a net withdrawal of atmospheric carbon dioxide. From an agronomic point of view, high organic carbon input from biochar can enhance the nutrient and water retention capacity of the amended soil, reducing the total fertilizer requirements.
The technology makes use of red worms to process fresh manure filled into a trench to improve soil fertility. To process the manure, a trench is prepared and filled with fresh manure and 5 kg of worms, which feed on the manure and process it. Within 20-25 days bio-humus is produced and then separated from the worms by using a metal mesh, and the activity can be repeated anew. The produced bio-humus is used as an organic fertilizer for vegetable production. Application norms are 2.5-5 tons of bio-humus per hectare.
Planting pits are filled with organic vegetative material mixed with decomposing manure to create a reservoir of nutrients for a banana plantation. Each pit is dug close to a banana stand and is filled with chopped banana stems, a layer of manure covered with mulch to prevent excessive evaporation of moisture, and a top layer of soil. The main objective is to improve soil fertility, reduce soil erosion, improve moisture infiltration and retention, and enable the plantation to withstand the dry months.
By taking advantage of the natural process of decomposition of organic matter by microorganisms, compost is produced from raw materials such as weeds and bio-waste available on the farm. The raw materials are shredded and sprayed with a mixture of one tablespoon of forest soil and one tablespoon of sugar/molasses in one liter of water to hasten decomposition.
Seed priming and microfertilization are two agronomic measures to increase soil fertility and increase crop harvests in semi-arid drylands. Seed priming consists of soaking seeds for 8 hours prior to sowing, and microfertilization is the application of small amounts of mineral fertilizer to the planting hole.
Strip tillage is a cropping system for maize which reduces the reworking of the soil to the stripes, in which the seeds are planted. Strip tillage is a mixture between no tillage and conventional agriculture. Instead of ploughing and harrowing, a special rotary tiller including a grubber is used; it is used to avoid soil erosion or for economic reasons. The reworking of the soil, manuring, seeding and applying of herbicides can be done at once.
Maintenance of continuous soil cover; alternating crops and cover crops as a practice to improve soil quality and reduce diffuse agricultural water pollution. Continuous cover cropping has been promoted as an agro-environmental measure to extend sustainable land management and reduce diffuse water pollution. The type of crop species depends on the crop succession. Compared with systems that do not use cover crops, continuous soil cover provides long-term agronomical and environmental benefits due to a reduction of negative impacts on agro-ecosystems.
Growing crops (or pastures) without disturbing the soil through tillage; direct seeding/planting and residue management (partial soil cover). No till technology reduces soil erosion and soil compaction while conserving water in the soil. It also makes optimum use of scarce and low rainfall to stabilise/increase crop yields.
Leaving crop residues on the soil surface and subsequent planting through the mulch. The mulch layer has several important functions: it helps to increase and maintain water stored in the soil, reduces soil erosion, contributes to improve soil fertility and it efficiently controls weeds by hindering their growth and preventing weeds from producing seeds.
Mulching involves spreading waste crop after harvesting. Covering the soil with mulch protects it against wind and water erosion and provides nutrients which have a positive effect on yields and food security. Mulching also helps to improve the infiltration of water and reduce the evaporation of moisture from the soil.
Integrated production and pest management (IPPM) curbs environmental degradation caused by current farming practices (intensive and extensive), reducing the negative impact of pesticides on the environment and on human health. IPPM works with all available techniques for combatting pests, while eliminating or keeping pesticide use at economically justified levels.
Use of biological agents (various types of symbiotic mycorrhizae fungi) as plant salt tolerance facilitators and soil amendments. The technology is applied as an effective agronomic measure to increase plant salt tolerance, reduce soil-borne diseases that affect plant roots, and increase of water and nutrient absorption.
Using environmentally friendly phyto-pesticides, made from natural plant extracts to help combat pests and diseases. Plant extracts include potatoes, onions or tomato stalks, garlic, pepper, dandelion, common wormwood and thorn apple extracts.