The health implications of drought are numerous and far reaching. Some drought-related health effects are experienced in the short-term and can be directly observed and measured. However, the slow rise or chronic nature of drought can result in longer term, indirect health implications that are not always easy to anticipate or monitor. There is still limited evidence on the health impacts of drough and more research is needed. The main health effects of drought include: nutrition-related, water-related disease, airborne and dust-related disease, vector borne disease and mental health.
Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from water. The goal is to produce water fit for human consumption (drinking water), The methods used include physical processes such as filtration, sedimentation, and distillation; biological processes such as slow sand filters or biologically active carbon; chemical processes such as flocculation and chlorination and the use of electromagnetic radiation such as ultraviolet light.
Hand hygiene is the cornerstone of infection control and reduces rates of healthcare associated infections. However, effective handwashing with soap requires reliable access to water supplies. However, more than three billion people do not have household-level access to piped water
An agrometeorological station uses the advanced remote data-acquisition unit (arQ) geared with multi-parameter weather sensors which can simultaneously measure wind speed speed and direction; air temperature; air humidity; air pressure, rain amount, duration and intensity, soil moisture and temperature, solar radiation, and sunshine duration. The station gets data from the sensor for transmission via SMS or satellite network.
Consists of an artificial body placed in orbit round the earth which collects information or data by providing consistent observations at high spatial density with global coverage
Establishing regular systems and protocols for government agencies such as weather services to frequently watch drought indicators, such as the precipitation based Standardised Precipitation Index, satellite-based Drought Severity Index, and/or composite indicators such as the US Drought Monitor. The near real-time system can identify drought as it occurs and before major impacts are felt. monitor the onset of drought.
Enhance the efficient use of water through improved management and advanced irrigationtechnologies
Develop new irrigation water systems to deliver water to crops in times of water shortages and stress
Application of irrigation water during drought-sensitive growth stages of a crop. Outside these periods, irrigation is limited or even unnecessary if rainfall provides a minimum supply of water. Water restriction is limited to drought-tolerant phenological stages, often the vegetative stages and the late ripening period.
Raising public awareness means creating a campaign with a specific message on a particular issue
Livestock rotation approach relies on grazing different types of animals on the same land in a carefully controlled pattern, which ideally will enhance the land they roam. With several different animals, the technique is sometimes called multi-species grazing. Destocking refers to reducing the animal stock during drought.
An insurance policy providing coverage for losses due to the death or injury of one's livestock
Dams, troughs or other built infrastructure to supply water to livestock to ensure they have sufficient water during drought.
Use local native plant species which will be more sutable to local climates as the major or supplementary feed source.
Use livestock breeds that are able to survive with less water. May involve cross-breeding with local anmal species that are more tolerant to drought.
Store cut hay for times when grazing fodder is absent
Areas of rangeland and grazing systems are kept aside as reserves during periods of low fodder availability
Linear plantings of trees and shrubs in agriculrual systems, espcially intensively cropped land devoid of trees and shrubs
Eearly maturing crop varieties can yield a positive harvest within three months of planting to protect farmers in case of low rainfall or drought
Drought tolerant crops are species which can survive for long periods of time with little amounts or no water.
Crop insurance refers to an insurance which insures farmers and crop producers against their loss of crops due to natural disasters, such as hail, drought and floods
Applying appropriate rates of fertiliser given available soil water, rainfall and crop nutrient requirements
Cropping systems that do not distrurb (or till) the soil
Adjustment of planting dates to minimise the effect of high temperature low rainfal conditions on key stages of plant phenology and plant development
Leaving crop residues in situ to cover the soil and reduce water loss from evaporation